Sunday, November 30, 2014

Theory Building in Qualitative Research




Theory Building in Qualitative Research: Reconsidering the Problem of Induction

Pedro F. Bendassolli

2013

The paper dwells on the difficulties involved in the process of justifying experience-based scientific conclusions. More specifically, inductive reasoning assumes a leap from singular observational statements to general theoretical statements. It calls into question the role of empirical evidence in the theory-building process. In the philosophy of science, the validity of inductive reasoning has been severely questioned since at least the writings of David HUME. Induction has been lauded as one of the main pillars of qualitative research methods. This article proposes reviving discussion on the problem of induction in qualitative research. There is a tension between empirical observation and scientific explanation and in that context, the paper discusses the role of theory in qualitative research.



Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. The Problem of Induction

3. Relationship Between Theory and Empirical Data

4. Induction and Theory in Qualitative Research

4.1 The generic analytic cycle

4.2 Situating the problem of induction in the current debate: Some unsolved questions

5. Suggestions for Reconsidering the Problem of Induction in Qualitative Research

6. Final Considerations

6.1 General overview and limitations

6.2 Contributions to scholarship: Revisiting theory building in qualitative research


http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1851/3497

Saturday, November 29, 2014

Shortcomings of 14 Doctoral Theses - 2014 Papers


Dr. Indrajit Goswami

He shared the paper on Linkedin in Management Professor Group.

http://spaceandculture.in/index.php/spaceandculture/article/view/35/pdf_20

Friday, November 28, 2014

Theory Building in Applied Disciplines - 2013 Book - Richard A. Swanson, Thomas J. Chermack - Book Information

Theory Building in Applied Disciplines


Richard A. Swanson, Thomas J. Chermack
Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 05-Aug-2013 -  240 pages


A Comprehensive Method, Tools, and Techniques for Building Sound Theory Richard Swanson and Thomas Chermack present a complete five-step approach for developing sound theory in applied disciplines, from conceptualizing a theory to creating relevant assessment criteria, establishing a research agenda to test the theory’s validity, applying the theoretical concepts in the real world, and using that experience to further refine and improve the theory. The method is not restricted to any single discipline, nor is it limited by any research ideology. The authors provide a set of tools for each phase of the process, making this book accessible to a wide audience. And in addition to examples in each chapter, they offer two extended case examples of full theory building.

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=mPP2UVTRse4C



Theory Building - Robert Dubin -1969-1978 Book Information

Case Study Methodology in Business Research - Jan Dul, Tony Hak - 2008 - Book Information

Case Study Methodology in Business Research


Jan Dul, Tony Hak
Routledge, 2008 -  302 pages

The complete guide for how to design and conduct theory-testing and other case studies…

Case Study Methodology in Business Research sets out structures and guidelines that assist students and researchers from a wide range of disciplines to develop their case study research in a consistent and rigorous manner. It clarifies the differences between practice-oriented and theory-oriented research and, within the latter category, between theory-testing and theory-building. It describes in detail how to design and conduct different types of case study research, providing students and researchers with everything they need for their project. The main aims are to:

* present a broad spectrum of types of case study research (including practice-oriented case studies, theory-building case studies and theory-testing case studies) in one consistent methodological framework.

* emphasize and clearly illustrate that the case study is the preferred research strategy for testing deterministic propositions such as those expressing a necessary condition case by case and that the survey is the preferred research strategy for testing probabilistic propositions.

* stress the role of replication in all theory-testing research, irrespective of which research strategy is chosen for a specific test.

* give more weight to the importance of theory-testing relative to theory-building.

Case Study Methodology in Business Research is a clear, concise and comprehensive text for case study methodology. Templates are supplied for case study protocol and how to report a case study.

A modular textbook primarily aimed at serving research methodology courses for final year undergraduate students and graduate students in Business Administration and Management, which is also useful as a handbook for researchers.

Written by Jan Dul, Professor of Technology and Human Factors, RSM Erasmus University, Rotterdam and Tony Hak, Associate professor of Research Methodology, RSM Erasmus University, Rotterdam, in collaboration with other authors from RSM Erasmus University.

* Provides students with everything needed to design and conduct a case study project
* Templates are supplied clearly demonstrating case study protocol and how to report a case study
* A highly accessible, concise and comprehensive text for Case Study methodology

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=2UqvbjtpO8sC

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Books on Logic and Propositions - Possible Worlds - Bradley and Swartz - Important for Research Students



Possible Worlds: An Introduction to Logic and Its Philosophy
Raymond Bradley and Norman Swartz

http://www.sfu.ca/~swartz/pw/text/pw_all.pdf

Copy made available for public use by authors

Table of Contents

PREFAC E xv
T O TH E TEACHE R xvii
T O TH E STUDEN T xxi
POSSIBLE WORLDS 1
1. THIS AN D OTHE R POSSIBLE WORLD S 1
The realm of possibilities 1
What are the limits to the possible? 2
Possibility is not the same as conceivability 3
Possible worlds: actual and non-actual 4
Logical possibility distinguished from other kinds 6
The constituents of possible worlds 7
2. PROPOSITIONS, TRUTH , AN D FALSIT Y 9
Truth and falsity defined 9
Truth in a possible world 11
Truth in the actual world 12
The myth of degrees of truth 12
3. PROPERTIES O F PROPOSITIONS 13
Possibly true propositions 13
Possibly false propositions 13
Contingent propositions 14
Contradictories of propositions 14
Noncontingent propositions 15
Necessarily true propositions 16
Necessarily false propositions 17
More about contradictory propositions 18
Some main kinds of noncontingent propositions 19
Summary 24
Symbolization 25
4. RELATION S BETWEE N PROPOSITIONS 28
Inconsistency 28
Consistency 30
Implication 31
Equivalence 35
Symbolization 41
vii CONTENTS
5. SETS O F PROPOSITIONS 42
Truth-values of proposition-sets 42
Modal properties of proposition-sets 42
Modal relations between proposition-sets 44
Minding our "P's and "Q"s 47
6. MODA L PROPERTIES AN D RELATION S PICTURE D O N
WORLDS-DIAGRAMS 48
Worlds-diagrams for modal properties 49
Worlds-diagrams for modal relations 50
Interpretation of worlds-diagrams 50
A note on history and nomenclature 53
Capsule descriptions of modal relations 54
Appendix to section 6 57
7. IS A SINGLE THEOR Y O F TRUT H ADEQUAT E FO R BOT H
CONTINGEN T AN D NONCONTINGEN T PROPOSITIONS? 58
8. TH E "POSSIBLE WORLDS " IDIOM 62


2
PROPOSITIONS 65
1. INTRODUCTIO N 65
2. TH E BEARER S O F TRUTH-VALUE S 65
Thesis 1: Such things as beliefs, statements, assertions,
remarks, hypotheses, and theories are the bearers of truth
and falsity. 68
Thesis 2: Acts of believing (stating, asserting, etc.) are the
bearers of truth-values. 68
Thesis 3: That which is believed, stated, etc., is what is true
or false. 71
Thesis 4: Sentences are the bearers of truth-values. 71
Thesis 5: Sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values. 73
Thesis 6: Sentence-types are the bearers of truth-values. 74
Thesis 7: Context-free sentences are the bearers of truth-values. 75
Thesis 8: Context-free sentence-tokens are those things to
which truth and falsity may be attributed. 76
Thesis 9: Context-free sentence-types are those things to
which truth and falsity may be attributed. 76
Thesis 10: Propositions are those things to which truth and
falsity may be attributed. 79
Thesis 11: Propositions are to be identified with the meanings
of sentences. 80
Thesis 12: Propositions are to be identified with sets of
possible worlds. 82

PROPOSITIONS 65
1. INTRODUCTIO N 65
2. TH E BEARER S O F TRUTH-VALUE S 65
Thesis 1: Such things as beliefs, statements, assertions,
remarks, hypotheses, and theories are the bearers of truth
and falsity. 68
Thesis 2: Acts of believing (stating, asserting, etc.) are the
bearers of truth-values. 68
Thesis 3: That which is believed, stated, etc., is what is true
or false. 71
Thesis 4: Sentences are the bearers of truth-values. 71
Thesis 5: Sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values. 73
Thesis 6: Sentence-types are the bearers of truth-values. 74
Thesis 7: Context-free sentences are the bearers of truth-values. 75
Thesis 8: Context-free sentence-tokens are those things to
which truth and falsity may be attributed. 76
Thesis 9: Context-free sentence-types are those things to
which truth and falsity may be attributed. 76
Thesis 10: Propositions are those things to which truth and
falsity may be attributed. 79
Thesis 11: Propositions are to be identified with the meanings
of sentences. 80
Thesis 12: Propositions are to be identified with sets of
possible worlds. 82

3.

KNOWLEDGE 129
1. TH E SUBJECT MATTER AND TH E SCIENCE OF LOGIC 129
2. TH E NATURE OF KNOWLEDGE 130
7. Is it a necessary condition of the truth of as knowing
that P, that P should be true? 131
2. Is it a necessary condition of a's knowing that P, that a
believe that P? 133
3. Is it a necessary condition of a's knowing that P, that a
be justified in believing that P? 136
4. What might the missing fourth necessary condition for
a's knowing that P be? 137
3. TH E LIMITS OF HUMA N KNOWLEDGE 139
The known and the unknown 139
The knowable and the unknowable 140
4. EXPERIENTIAL AND RATIOCINATIVE KNOWLEDGE 142
Experiential knowledge 142
Ratiocinative knowledge 144
Appendix to section 4 149
5. EMPIRICAL AND A PRIORI KNOWLEDGE 149
Definitions of "empirical" and "a priori" 150
The non-exhaustiveness and non-exclusiveness of the
experiential/ratiocinative distinction 151
The exhaustiveness and exclusiveness of the empirical/
a priori distinction 152
Is a priori knowledge certain? 155
7. Is it a necessary condition of the truth of as knowing
that P, that P should be true? 131
2. Is it a necessary condition of a's knowing that P, that a
believe that P? 133
3. Is it a necessary condition of a's knowing that P, that a
be justified in believing that P? 136
4. What might the missing fourth necessary condition for
a's knowing that P be? 137
3. TH E LIMITS OF HUMA N KNOWLEDGE 139
The known and the unknown 139
The knowable and the unknowable 140
4. EXPERIENTIAL AND RATIOCINATIVE KNOWLEDGE 142
Experiential knowledge 142
Ratiocinative knowledge 144
Appendix to section 4 149
5. EMPIRICAL AND A PRIORI KNOWLEDGE 149
Definitions of "empirical" and "a priori" 150
The non-exhaustiveness and non-exclusiveness of the
experiential/ratiocinative distinction 151
The exhaustiveness and exclusiveness of the empirical/
a priori distinction 152
Is a priori knowledge certain? 155
9. Are there any noncontingent propositions which are
knowable a priori but by means other than ratiocination? 171
10. Are there any noncontingent propositions which are
unknowable? 172
Appendix to section 6: a complete classificatory scheme for
the epistemic and modal distinctions 174
7. TH E EPISTEMOLOGY OF LOGIC 175


4
THE SCIENCE OF LOGIC: AN OVERVIEW 179
1. INTRODUCTION 179
2. TH E METHO D OF ANALYSIS 180
The objects of philosophical analysis 180
Three levels of analysis 181
The idea of a complete analysis 183
The need for a further kind of analysis 184
Possible-worlds analysis 185
Degrees of analytical knowledge 187
3. TH E PARADOX OF ANALYSIS 189
Moore's problem 189
A Moorean solution 190
4. TH E METHO D OF INFERENCE 192
The nature of inference 193
Valid and invalid propositional inferences 195
Determining the validity of inferences: the problem of
justification 196
Rules of inference 198
What kind of rule is a rule of inference? 200
Inference and the expansion of knowledge 201
5. INFERENCE WITHIN TH E SCIENCE OF LOGIC 205
Inference within axiomatic systems: the example of S5 205
Inference within natural deduction systems 210
The theoretical warrant of the method of direct proof 215
6. A PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVE ON LOGIC AS
A WHOLE 218
The indispensability of modal concepts within propositional logics 218
Problems about the reduction principles 220
Problems about the paradoxes 224
Relevance logics 228
The move to predicate logic 230
Traditional syllogistic 232
Modern predicate logic 233
Modal notions in predicate logic 236
Modalities de dicto and de re 237
Heterogeneous and homogeneous possible worlds 239
Is there really a logic of concepts? 240


5
TRUTH-FUNCTIONAL PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC 247
1. INTRODUCTION 247
2. TRUTH-FUNCTIONAL OPERATORS 247
The uses of "not" and "it is not the case that" 249
The uses of "and" 252
The uses of "or" 257
Interlude: compound sentences containing two or more
sentential operators 261
The uses of "if... then ..." 263
The uses of "if and only if 269
Appendix: truth-tables for wffs containing three or more
letters 272
3. EVALUATING COMPOUND SENTENCES 273
A note on two senses of "determined" 277
4. ELEMENTARY TRUTH-TABLE TECHNIQUES FOR
REVEALING MODAL STATUS AND MODAL RELATIONS 279
Modal status 279
Modal relations 284
Deductive validity 290
5. ADVANCED TRUTH-TABLE TECHNIQUES 294
Corrected truth-tables 294
Reduced truth-tables 297
6. TH E CONCEPT OF FORM 301
Sentences and sentential forms in a logic 301
The relationship between sentences and
sentence-forms 302
7. EVALUATING SENTENCE-FORMS 306
The validity of sentence-forms 306
Modal relations 308
Implication 308
Equivalence 309
Inconsistency 309
Argument-forms and deductive validity 310
8. FORM IN A NATURAL LANGUAGE 311
9. WORLDS-DIAGRAMS AS A DECISION PROCEDURE FOR
TRUTH-FUNCTIONAL PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC 313
10. A SHORTCUT FORMAL METHOD: REDUCTIO AD
ABSURDUM TESTS 315
Summary 320

6

1 to 10 have to be included

11. LOOKING BEYOND MODAL LOGIC TO INDUCTIVE
LOGIC 370
The cardinality of a class and other concepts of class size 371
The concept of contingent content 372
Monadic modal functors 375
What are the prospects for a fully-developed inductive logic? 379
The concept of probabilification 381
A dyadic modal functor for the concept of probabilification 382 

Sunday, November 9, 2014

Futures Research Tactic in Business and Management Research



Futures Studies and Future-oriented Technology Analysis
Principles, Methodology and Research Questions
2011 Paper
Prof. Dr. Rolf Kreibich
Britta Oertel
Michaela Wölk
IZT – Institute for Futures Studies and Technology Assessment
http://www.hiig.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Foresight-Paper.pdf



Qualitative futures research for innovation
Patrick van der Duin
2006
PhD Thesis:  Technische Universiteit Delft
Eburon Academic Publishers; P.O. Box 2867; 2601 CW Delft; The Netherlands


Researching the future: method or madness?
Eddie Blass
Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 OAL, UK
2003 Paper
http://www.ashridge.com/Website/IC.nsf/wFARATT/Researching%20the%20Future:%20Method%20or%20Madness/$file/ResearchingThe%20Future.pdf

What is a Framework in Science or Theory?

Conceptual frameworks are high-level conceptual categories and relationships that may not explain a particular phenomenon but identify the types of concepts that are likely needed to provide an explanation.  In that way, conceptual frameworks can provide guidance in developing theory.

If you are developing a framework, the deliverables are

A diagram of the conceptual framework you are proposing using as a starting point or basis for further  theory building.

A description explaining the diagram.

The way a framework is defined, it can also be explained as input variables and output variables of the phenomenon of interest. The framework may provide additional information apart from the simple listing of variables.

Framework building - Is it exploratory research or descriptive research?

https://loft.io/process/grounded-theory/conceive/conceptual-framework/


Reference given:
Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2007). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Management Research Methodology - K.N. Krishnaswamy et al. 2012- Book Information


Google Book Link with Preview Facility

The book has focus on applied research for using the research to directly solve problems facing the manager.

Wednesday, November 5, 2014

Theory of Propositions



General Theory of Propositions by Dewey
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=3YyWpCpfAjkC&pg=PA283#v=onepage&q&f=false

Dewey books on logic is available on archive.org




Construction of Complex Propositions
http://www.cs.odu.edu/~toida/nerzic/level-a/logic/prop_logic/construction/construction.htm

Link for logic course

http://www.cs.odu.edu/~toida/nerzic/level-a/web_course.html


On scribd there is a good presentatin on propositions. - Types of Propositions


Bricolage Research - A Research Methodology





Bricolage research, as conceptualized by Denzin and Lincoln (1999) and further theorized by Kincheloe (2001; 2004a; 2004b; 2004c; 2004d; 2005a) and Berry (2004a; 2004b; 2006; 2011), can be considered a critical, multi-perspectival, multi-theoretical and multi-methodological approach to inquiry.

The etymological foundation of bricolage comes from a traditional French expression which denotes crafts-people who creatively use materials left over from other projects to construct new artifacts. To
fashion their bricolage projects, bricoleurs use only the tools and materials “at-hand” (Levi-Strauss, 1966). This mode of construction is in direct contrast to the work of engineers, who follow set procedures and have a list of specific tools to carry out their work.

Generally speaking, when the metaphor is used within the domaine of qualitative research it denotes methodological practices explicitly based on notions of eclecticism, emergent design, flexibility and plurality. Further, it signifies approaches that examine phenomena from multiple, and sometimes competing, theoretical and methodological perspectives.

Contextualizing Theories and Practices of Bricolage Research
Matt Rogers
University of New Brunswick, Canada
The Qualitative Report 2012 Volume 17, T&L Art. 7, 1-17
http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR17/rogers.pdf


http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~jenglish/Courses/mileaf.html



https://staff.aist.go.jp/h.arai/bricolage.html