Monday, December 12, 2016

Phenomenology - Blog Book - Table of Contents

Phenomenology - Blog Book - References







References

1. Brooks, D. (2008). The behavioral revolution. The New York Times, October 27, pp A. 31.
2. Coomer, D.L., & Hultgren, F.H. (1989). Considering alternatives: an invitation to dialog and question. In D.L. Commer & F.H. Hultgren (Eds), Alternative modes of inquiry. Washington DC: American Home Economics Association, Teacher Education Section.
3. Courtenay B.C., Merriam, S.B. & Reeves, P.M. (1998). The centrality of meaning-making in transformational learning: how HIV positive adults make sense of their lives, Adult Education Quarterly, 48 (2), pp. 65-84.
4. Denzin, N.A. & Lincoln, Y.S. (1994). Introduction: entering the field of interpretive research. In N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of interpretive research (pp. 1-17). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.
5. Derman, E. & Wilmott, P. (2009). Perfect models imperfect world. Businessweek, January 12, pp. 59-60.
6. Finance Maps of World. Electronic references to financial models. Retrieved December 3, 2008, from http://finance.mapsofworld.com/finance-theory/.
7. Engle and Granger win Nobel Prize (2004). Biz Ed, January/February, pp. 8.
8. Enrich, L. (2005). Revisiting phenomenology: it’s potential for management research. In proceedings challenges or organizations in global markets. British Academy of Management Conference, pp. 1-13.
9. The financial crisis inquiry report (2011). The final report of the national commission on the causes of the financial and economic crisis in the United States. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
10. Gerardi, K., Lehnert, A., Sherlund, S.M. & Willen, P. (2008). Making sense of the subprime crisis. Prepared for the Brookings Panel on Economic Activity.
11. Giorgi, A. (1997). Theory, practice, and evaluation of the phenomenological method as a interpretive research procedure, Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 28 (2), pp. 235-260.
12. Hirshleifer, D. (2001). Investor psychology and asset pricing. The Journal of Finance, 56 (4).
13. Hirshleifer, D., Teoh, S.H. (2003). Herd behavior and cascading in capital markets: a review and synthesis, European Financial Management, 9 (1), pp.25-66.
14. Hultgren, F.H. (1989). Introduction to Interpretive Inquiry. In F.H. Hultgren & D.L. Coomer (Eds). Alternative modes of inquiry. Washington D.C., American Home Economics Association, Teacher Education Section, pp. 283-290.
15. Kane, E.J. (1989) Changing incentives facing financial-services regulators, Journal of Financial Services Research, 2, (3), pp. 265-274
16. Lewis, M. (2008). The End. Portfolio.com, December.
17. Lohr, S. (2008). In modeling risk, the human factor was left out, The New York Times, November 4, pp. B1.
18. McClelland, J. (1995). Sending children to kindergarten: a phenomenological study of mother’s experiences, Family Relations, 44 (2).
19. Phenomenological Research and its Potential for Understanding Financial Models, Michael S Wilson, USA
20. Polkinghorne, D. (1989). Methodology for the human sciences: systems of inquiry. Albany, NY: University of New York Press.
21. Randolf-Williams, E. (2010). The changing role of the compensation committee: five areas compensation committees should be addressing in 2010 and beyond, Benefits Law Journal, 23 (2), pp. 17-27.
22. Rajon, U., Seru, A. & Vig, V. (2008). The failure of models that predict failure: Distance, incentives and defaults.University of Chicago Graduate Business School Research Paper 08-19.
23. Roll, R., Ross, S.A. (1980). An empirical investigation of the arbitrage pricing theory, The Journal of Finance, 35 (5).
24. Thorton, M. (2001). Austrian economics: new applications, Austrian Economics Newsletter, 21 (2).
25. Tversky, A. & Kahnamen, D. (1982). Judgement under uncertainty. In Kahnamen, D., Slovic, P., & Tversky, A. (Eds) Judgment under uncertainty (2nded). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
26. Van Manen, M. (2001). Researching Lived Experience. Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy (2nd ed.). Alberta, Canada: Althouse Press.
27. Ehrich, Lisa (2005) Revisiting phenomenology: its potential for management research. In Proceedings Challenges or organisations in global markets, British Academy of Management Conference, pages pp. 1-13, Said Business School, Oxford University.

28. Sebastian Reiter, Glenn Stewart and Christian Bruce,  A Strategy for Delayed Research Method Selection: Deciding between Grounded Theory and Phenomenology, The Electronic journal of Business Research Methods, Vol-9, Issue-1, 2011,pp 35-46







Monday, October 10, 2016

Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods: A Guidebook and Resource - Book Information


Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods: A Guidebook and Resource

Steven J. Taylor, Robert Bogdan, Marjorie DeVault

John Wiley & Sons, 04-Sep-2015 - Psychology - 416 pages


An informative real-world guide to studying the "why" of human behavior

Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods is a practical, comprehensive guide to the collection and presentation of qualitative data. This book describes the entire research process — from design through writing — illustrated by examples of real, complete qualitative work that clearly demonstrates how methods are used in actual practice. This updated fourth edition includes  new case studies, with additional coverage of mixed methods, non-sociological settings, funding, and a sample interview guide. The studies profiled are accompanied by observation field notes, and the text includes additional readings for both students and instructors. This guide provides you a real-world practitioner's view of how qualitative research is handled every step of the way.

Many different disciplines rely on qualitative research as a method of inquiry, to gain an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the governing forces behind it.

Understand the strengths and limitations of qualitative data
Learn how experts work around common methodological issues
Compare actual field notes to the qualitative studies they generated
Examine the full range of qualitative methods throughout the research process


Whether you're doing research in sociology, psychology, marketing, or any number of other fields,  having human behavior as an important component, human behavior is the central concern of research. "What drives human behavior?" is the question That's what qualitative research helps to explain. Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods gives you the foundation you need to begin seeking answers.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=RkCCCgAAQBAJ

Friday, October 7, 2016

Understanding Management Research: An Introduction to Epistemology - Phil Johnson, Joanne Duberley - Book Information

Understanding Management Research: An Introduction to Epistemology


Phil Johnson, Joanne Duberley
SAGE, 28-Sep-2000 - Business & Economics - 224 pages


'These sections represent the clearest rendition yet of these subjects, with difficult concepts introduced in a digestible form for the neophytic (or not so neophytic) researcher. Whilst in a book this size not every argument can be presented, there is ample extra material to be found to encourage further engagement... At the end of each chapter, there is a very useful Further Reading section provided by the authors, which gives useful guidelines.

Understanding Management Research provides an overview of the principal epistemological debates in social science and how these lead to and are expressed in different ways of conceiving and undertaking organizational research. For researchers and students who are increasingly expected to adopt a reflexive understanding of their own epistemological position, the authors present a concise, accessible guide to the different perspectives available and their implications for research output.

All students undertaking empirical research for theses and dissertations will find this book helps them comprehend the key ongoing debates and engage with their own pre-understandings when trying to make sense of management and organizations.

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=Do-v6tfJAjoC

Sunday, September 11, 2016

Hermeneutic Phenomenology



As a branch or method of phenomenology, hermeneutic phenomenology is concerned with the life world or human experience as it is lived. The focus is toward illuminating details and seemingly trivial aspects within experience that may be taken for granted in our lives, with a goal of creating meaning and achieving a sense of understanding.  While Husserl focused on understanding beings or phenomena, Heidegger focused on ‘Dasein’, that is translated as ‘the mode of being human’ or ‘the situated meaning of a human in the world’. Husserl was interested in acts of attending, perceiving, recalling, and thinking about the world and human beings were understood primarily as knowers. Heidegger, in contrast, viewed humans as being primarily concerned creatures with an emphasis on their fate in an alien world.

Consciousness is not separate from the world, in Heidegger’s view, but is a formation of historically lived experience. He believed that understanding is a basic form of human existence in that understanding is not a way we know the world, but rather the way we are. Koch (1995) outlined Heidegger’s emphasis on the historicality of understanding as one’s background or situatedness in the world. Historicality, a person’s history or background, includes what a culture gives a person from birth and is handed down, presenting ways of understanding the world. Through this understanding, one determines what is ‘real’, yet Heidegger also believed that one’s background cannot be made completely explicit. Munhall (1989) described Heidegger as having a view of people and the world as indissolubly related in cultural, in social and in historical contexts.

Interpretation is seen as critical to this process of understanding. Claiming that to be human was to interpret, Heidegger (1927/1962) stressed that every encounter involves an interpretation influenced by an individual’s background or historicality. Polkinghorne (1983) described this interpretive process as concentrating on historical meanings of experience and their development and cumulative effects on individual and social levels.

This interpretive process is achieved through a hermeneutic circle which moves from the parts of experience, to the whole of experience and back and forth again and again to increase the depth of engagement with and the understanding of texts [interview transcripts] (Annells, 1996; Polkinghorne, 1983). Kvale (1996) viewed the end of this spiraling through a hermeneutic circle as occurring when one has reached a place of sensible meaning, free of inner contradictions, for the moment.

Sources

http://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/2_3final/pdf/laverty.pdf
(Laverty explains the differences between Husserl's way of phenomenology and Heidegger's way phenomenology)

Hermeneutic Phenomenological  Research Method Simplified - 2011 article
http://www.ku.edu.np/bodhi/vol5_no1/11.%20Narayan%20Kafle.%20Hermeneutic%20Phenomenological%20Research%20Method.pdf



Hermeneutic Phenomenological Research: A Practical Guide for Nurse Researchers
 By Marlene Zichi Cohen
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=jPIqRic8TXMC  

Hermeneutic Phenomenological study of Philanthropian Leaders
Lisa Barrow
http://www.bookpump.com/dps/pdf-b/1122373b.pdf


Understanding and Leading Organization - A Hermeneutic Philosophical Investigation
Dominik Heil
http://libraryofprofessionalcoaching.com/wp-app/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Issue1_2010-Heil.pdf


Phenomenological Reduction and Emergent Design: Complementary Methods for Leadership Narrative Interpretation and Metanarrative Development
Donald L. Gilstrap
University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA
International Journal of Qualitative Methods 6 (1) March 2007
http://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/IJQM/article/viewFile/469/455


Authentic leadership and the narrative self
Raymond T. Sparrowe
The Leadership Quarterly 16 (2005) 419 – 439

Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy (Google eBook)
Max Van Manen
SUNY Press, 01-Jan-1990 - Education - 202 pages
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=fBCZ5n6okOYC

Investigating subjectivity: Research on Lived Experience
Carolyn Ellis, 1992
http://books.google.co.in/books/about/Investigating_Subjectivity.html?id=Fakwo1jA8mMC

Researching Entrepreneurship as Livid Experience
http://henrikberglund.com/Phenomenology.pdf


Read Transcendental Phenomenology  also

Updated  14 Sep 2016,  20 July 2013

Deductive Theory Building and Inductive Theory Building



Developing Theory from Observations - Creativity in Inductive Thinking - Research Methodology


Scientific Research is theory building.

Theory is developed for the set of observations. The process involved is inductive thinking. There is creativity involved in theory building. The concrete or specific observations are to be described by general concepts. Theory connects the concepts.

In developing the concept from a practical instance or observation some assumptions are employed and a rigorous description of the concept is developed. Further assumptions are used to develop theory. Model building is also theory development only. Model building used to solve practical problems also involves assumptions that bring the reality to close to the existing problem solving theories. From the set of assumptions, the theory is developed. This is termed as deductive approach to theory building.

In grounded theory method, Glaser and Strauss recommend theory building from the evidence only without building any model and then developing theory. They criticize model based theory building as too distant from the evidence on which it was supposed to be based. Hence, the likelihood of the theory failing in test is high.


Illustrations of Assumptions and Theory Building

Modigliani and Miller Capital Structure Theory

Assumptions

1. Perfect capital market: Information is freely available, there is no asymmetry, transactions are costless; there are no bankruptcy costs, securities are infinitely divisible.
2. Rational Investors and Managers: Investors rationally choose a combination of risk and return that is most advantageous to them. Managers act in the interests of shareholders.
3. Homogeneous expectations: Investors hold identical expecations about future operating earnings.
4. Equivalent risk classes: Firms can be grouped into 'equivalent risk classes' on the basis of their business risk.
5. Absence of Taxes: There is no corporate income tax.

MM Proposition I
The value of a firm is equal to its expected operating income divided by the discount rate appropriate to its risk class. It is independent of its capital structure.

MM Proposition II
The expected return on equity is equal to the expected rate of return on assets, plus a premium. The premium is equal to the debt-equity ratio times the difference between the expected return on assets and the expected return on debt.

(Source: Prasanna Chandra, Financial Management: Theory and Practice, Fifth Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Co. Ltd, New Delhi, 2001. pp.417-24.)


Theory of Collisions (Physics)

Assumptions

The masses are moving on a frictionless surface.
The masses are perfectly elastic bodies (or they are connected by massless springs).

(Reference: H.C. Verma, Concepts of Physics Part 1, Bharati Bhawan, New Delhi, 1993 (Second reprint of revised edition 2007), p.145.


Article originally published at Knol 2657

List of Articles on the Topic


Volume 14, No. 1, Art. 25 – January 2013
Theory Building in Qualitative Research: Reconsidering the Problem of Induction

Pedro F. Bendassolli

Abstract: The problem of induction refers to the difficulties involved in the process of justifying experience-based scientific conclusions. More specifically, inductive reasoning assumes a leap from singular observational statements to general theoretical statements. It calls into question the role of empirical evidence in the theory-building process. In the philosophy of science, the validity of inductive reasoning has been severely questioned since at least the writings of David HUME. At the same time, induction has been lauded as one of the main pillars of qualitative research methods, and its identity as such has consolidated to the detriment of hypothetical-deductive methods. This article proposes reviving discussion on the problem of induction in qualitative research. It is argued that qualitative methods inherit many of the tensions intrinsic to inductive reasoning, such as those between the demands of empiricism and of formal scientific explanation, suggesting the need to reconsider the role of theory in qualitative research.
http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1851/3497

Full paper available


Updated   14 September 2016,  24 August 2016,  10 December 2012

StatSoft Statistics Textbook - Book Information


The book is available for free access since 1995. Now Statsoft is part of Dell.

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Discriminant analysis classifies the given subjects into two categories like "likely to be successful" and "likely to be failures" based on the data that is given for each subject. The decision maker can select the subjects likely to be successful for say, investment.

Factor analysis converts the given data on various subjects into less number of variables termed as factors. The factors can be used for further data analysis.




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Summer Undergraduate Research Program at Purdue University College of Engineering

Saturday, September 10, 2016

Moderating and Mediating Variables

Mediating variable acts as an intermediate variable between independent variable and the criterion variable (dependent variable). Unless the mediating variable is present, the effect between independent variable and criterion variable will be insignificant.

The correlation between the predictor and the mediator variables, and the correlation between the mediator and criterion variables should be significant. The correlation between predictor and criterion should be reduced (to zero in the case of total mediation) after controlling the relation between the mediator and criterion variables.


Moderating variable increases or decreases the effect of an independent variable on the criterion variable (dependent variable).

In analysis of variance (ANOVA), a basic moderator effect can be represented as an interaction between an independent variable and another variable.


http://psych.wisc.edu/henriques/mediator.html

More

https://significantlystatistical.wordpress.com/2014/12/12/confounders-mediators-moderators-and-covariates/ 

Types of variables in research propositions

http://www.indiana.edu/~educy520/sec5982/week_2/variable_types.pdf

Transcendental Phenomenology



Two approaches to phenomenology were highlighted by Cresswell in his book on Qualitiative Research Methodology (Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry): hermeneutic phenomenology (van Manen, 1990) and empirical, transcendental, or psychological phenomenology (Moustakas, 1994).


Transcendental phenomenology is based on principles identified by Husserl (1931) and was translated into a qualitative method by Moustakas (1994). 

All phenomenological approaches  seek to understand the life world or human experience as it is lived.  

Meaning is the core of transcendental phenomenology of science, a design for acquiring and collecting data that explicates the essences of human experience.



According to Van Manen,  phenomenology research is a dynamic interplay among six research activities. Researchers first turn to a human phenomenon, a concern, which seriously interests them (e.g., satisfaction, grief, motivation). They want to identify the essential themes involved in this phenomenon by listening to or reading about the lived experience of people who experienced the phenomenon. They write a description of the phenomenon, maintaining a strong relation to the topic of inquiry and balancing the parts of the writing to the whole. Phenomenology is not only a description, but it is also seen as an interpretive process in which the researcher makes an interpretation (i.e., the researcher “mediates” between different meanings) of the meaning of the lived experiences.

Moustakas’s (1994) transcendental or psychological phenomenology is focused less on the interpretations of the researcher and more on a description of the experiences of participants. In addition, Husserl’s concept of  epoche (or bracketing) is emphasized. The investigator has to set aside
his experience, as much as possible and has to take a fresh perspective toward the phenomenon under examination based on the description of the lived experience presented by the participant in the research project. The term “transcendental” means “in which everything is perceived freshly, as if for the first time.”  This state is seldom perfectly achieved but the researcher has to be aware of the need for bracketing and concentrate as much as possible on the participant's description.

Moustakas (1994), includes in the research process, identifying a phenomenon to study, bracketing out one’s experiences, and collecting data from several persons who have experienced the phenomenon. The researcher then analyzes the data to identify significant statements or quotes and combines the statements into themes. Then, the researcher provides a list of various experiences of the persons (what participants experienced), a structural description of their experiences (how they experienced it in terms of the conditions, situations, or context), and a description that explains the
overall essence of the experience.

Procedure for Conducting Transcendental Phenomenological Research


Moustakas’s (1994) approach

Moustakas (1994) has indicated the steps in phenomenological analysis using a  structured approach.
The major procedural steps in the process would be as follows:

• The researcher has to  determine if his research problem is best examined using transcendental  phenomenological approach.

The type of problem best suited for this form of research is one in which it is important to understand several individuals’ common or shared experiences of a phenomenon. The understanding of the common experiences will help in developing practices or policies to deal with the phenomenon, or it helps in developing a deeper understanding about the features of the phenomenon.

• A phenomenon of interest  is decided.

• To fully describe how participants view the phenomenon, researchers must bracket out, as much as possible, their own experiences.

• Data are collected from the individuals who have experienced the phenomenon. The data collection in phenomenological studies consists of indepth multiple interviews with participants. Polkinghorne
(1989) recommends that researchers interview from 5 to 25 individuals who have all experienced the phenomenon. Other forms of data, such as observations, journals, art, poetry, music, and other forms
of art related to the phenomenon are also collected. The interviews can be in the form of taped conversations, formally written responses,  and both can have accounts of vicarious experiences of drama, films, poetry, and novels.

• The data collection centres around two broad, general questions: What have you experienced in terms of the phenomenon? What contexts or situations have typically influenced or affected your experiences of the phenomenon? Other open-ended questions may also be asked based on the situation. But, the question on what and how focus attention on gathering data that will lead to a list of experiences (including their description) and a structural description of the experiences, and ultimately provide an understanding of the common experiences of the participants.

• Data analysis: Building on the data from the first and second research questions, data analysts go through the data (e.g., interview transcriptions) and highlight “significant statements,” sentences, or quotes that provide an understanding of how the participants experienced the phenomenon. Moustakas (1994) terms this step horizonalization. Next, the researcher develops clusters of meaning from these significant statements into themes.

• The themes are then used to write a description of what the participants experienced. Then the description of the context or setting that influenced how the participants experienced the phenomenon, called imaginative variation or structural description is developed from the cluster of data developed for the theme.

• From the structural descriptions, the researcher then writes a composite description that presents the “essence” of the phenomenon, called the essential, invariant structure (or essence). Primarily essence  is derived from the common experiences of the participants. It means that all experiences have an underlying structure for the phenomenon.






Illustrative Research Paper

Using Transcendental Phenomenology to Explore the “Ripple Effect” in a Leadership Mentoring Program
Tammy Moerer-Urdahl
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA
John W. Creswell
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA
http://wigan-ojs.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/IJQM/article/viewFile/4470/3594
http://nraomrp.blogspot.com/2013/07/using-transcendental-phenomenology-to.html


Phenomenological Research Methods
Clark Moustakas
SAGE, 27-Jul-1994 - Psychology - 192 pages
In this volume, Clark Moustakas clearly discusses the theoretical underpinnings of phenomenology, based on the work of Husserl and others, and takes the reader step-by-step through the process of conducting a phenomenological study. His concise guide provides numerous examples of successful phenomenological studies from a variety of fields including therapy, health care, victimology, psychology and gender studies. The book also includes form letters and other research tools to use in designing and conducting a study.
Google Book Link - No preview facility
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=QiXJSszx7-8C

Phenomenology: history, its methodological assumptions and application
Mohamed-Patel, Rahima
2002, MA thesis
https://ujdigispace.uj.ac.za/handle/10210/1594
(Many dissertations using phenomenology are in the above collection)


Husserl's books and articles on Archive.org

A methodology for modern phenomenology
http://enlightenedworldview.com/blog/?title=a-methodology-for-modern-phenomenology&more=1&c=1&tb=1&pb=1

Husserl's philosophy
http://www.angelfire.com/md2/timewarp/husserl.html

Lecture on phenomenology
http://www.sonoma.edu/users/d/daniels/phenomlect.html


Updated  13 September 2016,  27 August 2013

An Introduction to Logic - Cohen and Nagel - Book Information

Glaser and Strauss - Grounded Theory - Chapter 2 - Generating Theory - Quotations and Summary



From the data based on coding, categories (conceptual categories or concepts) have to identified. From the data only properties of categories are also identified. Then relations among categories are identified. The theory developed that can be expressed as a descriptive note or proposition. Glaser and Strauss prefer descriptive note. They say descriptive note provides an indication that theory needs to be further developed. A proposition indicates finality.   But they stated that from descriptive note, propositions can be created as necessary say for testing purpose.


Quotations

Comparative analysis is a general method, just as are the experimental and statistical methods. (All use the logic of comparison.)


A concept may be generated from one fact, which then becomes merely one of a universe of many possible diverse indicators for, and data on, the concept. These indicators are then sought for the comparative analysis.

In discovering theory, one generates conceptual categories or their properties from evidence; then the evidence from which the category emerged is used to illustrate the concept. The evidence may not necessarily be accurate beyond a doubt (nor is it even in studies concerned only with accuracy), but
the concept is undoubteclly a relevant theoretical abstraction about what is going on in the area studied. Furthermore, the concept itself will not change, while even the most accurate facts change. Concepts only have their meanings respecified at times because other theoretical and research purposes have evolved.

Our goal of generating theory also subsumes this establishing of empirical generalizations, for the generalizations not only help delimit a grounded theory's boundaries of applicability; more important, they help us broaden the theory so that it is more generally applicable and has greater explanatory and
predictive power. By comparing where the facts are similar or different, we can generate properties of categories that increase the categories' generality and explanatory power.

While verifYing is the researcher's principal and vital task for existing theories, we suggest that his main goal in developing new theories is their purposeful systematic generation from the data of social research.

A grounded theory can be used as a fuller test of a logico-deductive theory pertaining to the same area by comparison of both theories than an accurate description used to verify a few propositions would provide. ·whether or not there is a previous speculative theory, discovery gives us a theory
that "fits or works" in a substantive or formal area (though further testing, clarification, or reformulation is still necessary), since the theory has been derived from data, not deduced from
logical assumptions. . .

The sociologist with theoretical generation ·as his major aim need not know the concrete situation better than the people involved in it (an impossible task anyway). His job and his training are to do what these laymen cannot do-generate general categories and their properties for general and specific situations and problems. Thesevcan provide theoretical guides to the layman's action

Grounded theory can be presented either as a wellcodified set of propositions or in a running theoretical discussion, using conceptual categories and their properties.

If necessary for verillcational studies, parts of the theoretical discussion can at any point be rephrased
as a set of propositions. This repht:asing is simply a formal exercise, though, since the concepts are already related in the discussion. Also, with either a propositional or discussional grounded theory, the sociologist can then logically deduce further hypotheses. Indeed, deductions from grounded theory, as it develops, are the method by which the researcher directs his theoretical sampling

Our approach, allowing substantive concepts and hypotheses to emerge first, on their own, enables the analyst to ascertain which, if any, existing formal theory may help him generate his substantive theories. He can then be more faithful to his data, rather than forcing it to fit a theory. He can be
more objective and less theoretically biased. Of course, this also means that he cannot merely apply Parsonian or Mertonian categories at the start, but must wait to see whether they are linked to the emergent substantive theory concerning the issue in focus.

the elements of theory that are generated by comparative analysis are, first, conceptual categories and their conceptual properties; and second, hypotheses or generalized relations among the categories and their properties.

A category stands by itself as a conceptual element of the theory. A property, in turn, is a conceptual aspect or element of a category. We have, then, both categories and their properties.

It must be kept in mind that both categories and properties are concepts indicated by the data (and not the data itself); also that both vary in degree of conceptual abstraction. Once a category or property is conceived, a change in the evidence that indicated it will not necessarily alt~r, clarify or destroy it.
It takes much more evidence-usually from different substantive areas-as well as the creation of a better category to achieve such changes in the original category. In short, conceptual categories
and properties have a life apart from the evidence that gave rise to them.

Lower level categories emerge rather quickly during the early phases of data collection. Higher level,
overridLllg and integrating, conceptualizations-and the properties that elaborate them-tend to come later during the joint collection, coding and analysis of the data.

The comparison of differences and similarities among groups not only generates categories, but also rather speedily generates generalized relations among them. It must be emphasized that these hypotheses have at first the status of suggested, not tested, relations among categories and !heir properties, though they are verified as much as possible in the course of research.

Joint collection, coding, and analysis of data is the underlying operation. The generation of theory,
coupled with the notion of theory as process, requires that all three operations be done together as much as possible. They should blur and intertwine continually, from the beginning of an investigation to its end.


Summary of Glaser, Barney G & Strauss, Anselm L., 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research,
http://faculty.babson.edu/krollag/org_site/craft_articles/glaser_strauss.html

Friday, September 9, 2016

Research Methods in Education - Cohen, Manion, and Morrison - Book Information

Research Methods in Education

7th Edition

Louis Cohen, Lawrence Manion, Keith Morrison
Routledge, 2011 - Education - 758 pages

7th edition of the long-running bestseller Research Methods in Education encompasses the whole range of methods currently employed by educational research at all stages. It offers plentiful and rich practical advice, underpinned by clear theoretical foundations, research evidence and up-to-date references.

Chapters new to this edition cover:

Causation, critical educational research, evaluation and the politics of research, including material on cross-cultural research, mixed methods and participatory research

Choosing and planning a research project, including material on sampling, research questions, literature reviews and ethical issues

Meta-analysis, research syntheses and systematic reviews

Virtual worlds and internet research

Using and analysing visual media and data in educational research

Organizing and presenting qualitative data, content analysis, coding and computer analysis, themes, narratives, conversations and discourses, grounded theory

Understanding and choosing statistical tests, descriptive and inferential statistics, multi-dimensional measurement and factor analysis

Research Methods in Education is essential reading for both the professional researcher and students of education at postgraduate level and Phd level, who need to understand how to plan, conduct, analyse and use research.

The textbook is accompanied by a website: www.routledge.com/textbooks/cohen7e. PowerPoint slides for every chapter contain an outline of the chapter structure followed by a thorough summary of the key points, ideal for both lecturers and students. Within the book a variety of internet resources are referred to and these references have been included here, with links to the websites. A wide range of supplementary documents are available for many chapters, providing additional guidance and examples. They range from guidelines for the contents of a research proposal with a worked example, to screen-print manuals for using SPSS and QSR N6 NUD*IST (exportable to N-Vivo) plus data files.