Sunday, September 11, 2016

Hermeneutic Phenomenology



As a branch or method of phenomenology, hermeneutic phenomenology is concerned with the life world or human experience as it is lived. The focus is toward illuminating details and seemingly trivial aspects within experience that may be taken for granted in our lives, with a goal of creating meaning and achieving a sense of understanding.  While Husserl focused on understanding beings or phenomena, Heidegger focused on ‘Dasein’, that is translated as ‘the mode of being human’ or ‘the situated meaning of a human in the world’. Husserl was interested in acts of attending, perceiving, recalling, and thinking about the world and human beings were understood primarily as knowers. Heidegger, in contrast, viewed humans as being primarily concerned creatures with an emphasis on their fate in an alien world.

Consciousness is not separate from the world, in Heidegger’s view, but is a formation of historically lived experience. He believed that understanding is a basic form of human existence in that understanding is not a way we know the world, but rather the way we are. Koch (1995) outlined Heidegger’s emphasis on the historicality of understanding as one’s background or situatedness in the world. Historicality, a person’s history or background, includes what a culture gives a person from birth and is handed down, presenting ways of understanding the world. Through this understanding, one determines what is ‘real’, yet Heidegger also believed that one’s background cannot be made completely explicit. Munhall (1989) described Heidegger as having a view of people and the world as indissolubly related in cultural, in social and in historical contexts.

Interpretation is seen as critical to this process of understanding. Claiming that to be human was to interpret, Heidegger (1927/1962) stressed that every encounter involves an interpretation influenced by an individual’s background or historicality. Polkinghorne (1983) described this interpretive process as concentrating on historical meanings of experience and their development and cumulative effects on individual and social levels.

This interpretive process is achieved through a hermeneutic circle which moves from the parts of experience, to the whole of experience and back and forth again and again to increase the depth of engagement with and the understanding of texts [interview transcripts] (Annells, 1996; Polkinghorne, 1983). Kvale (1996) viewed the end of this spiraling through a hermeneutic circle as occurring when one has reached a place of sensible meaning, free of inner contradictions, for the moment.

Sources

http://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/2_3final/pdf/laverty.pdf
(Laverty explains the differences between Husserl's way of phenomenology and Heidegger's way phenomenology)

Hermeneutic Phenomenological  Research Method Simplified - 2011 article
http://www.ku.edu.np/bodhi/vol5_no1/11.%20Narayan%20Kafle.%20Hermeneutic%20Phenomenological%20Research%20Method.pdf



Hermeneutic Phenomenological Research: A Practical Guide for Nurse Researchers
 By Marlene Zichi Cohen
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=jPIqRic8TXMC  

Hermeneutic Phenomenological study of Philanthropian Leaders
Lisa Barrow
http://www.bookpump.com/dps/pdf-b/1122373b.pdf


Understanding and Leading Organization - A Hermeneutic Philosophical Investigation
Dominik Heil
http://libraryofprofessionalcoaching.com/wp-app/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Issue1_2010-Heil.pdf


Phenomenological Reduction and Emergent Design: Complementary Methods for Leadership Narrative Interpretation and Metanarrative Development
Donald L. Gilstrap
University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA
International Journal of Qualitative Methods 6 (1) March 2007
http://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/IJQM/article/viewFile/469/455


Authentic leadership and the narrative self
Raymond T. Sparrowe
The Leadership Quarterly 16 (2005) 419 – 439

Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy (Google eBook)
Max Van Manen
SUNY Press, 01-Jan-1990 - Education - 202 pages
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=fBCZ5n6okOYC

Investigating subjectivity: Research on Lived Experience
Carolyn Ellis, 1992
http://books.google.co.in/books/about/Investigating_Subjectivity.html?id=Fakwo1jA8mMC

Researching Entrepreneurship as Livid Experience
http://henrikberglund.com/Phenomenology.pdf


Read Transcendental Phenomenology  also

Updated  14 Sep 2016,  20 July 2013

Deductive Theory Building and Inductive Theory Building



Developing Theory from Observations - Creativity in Inductive Thinking - Research Methodology


Scientific Research is theory building.

Theory is developed for the set of observations. The process involved is inductive thinking. There is creativity involved in theory building. The concrete or specific observations are to be described by general concepts. Theory connects the concepts.

In developing the concept from a practical instance or observation some assumptions are employed and a rigorous description of the concept is developed. Further assumptions are used to develop theory. Model building is also theory development only. Model building used to solve practical problems also involves assumptions that bring the reality to close to the existing problem solving theories. From the set of assumptions, the theory is developed. This is termed as deductive approach to theory building.

In grounded theory method, Glaser and Strauss recommend theory building from the evidence only without building any model and then developing theory. They criticize model based theory building as too distant from the evidence on which it was supposed to be based. Hence, the likelihood of the theory failing in test is high.


Illustrations of Assumptions and Theory Building

Modigliani and Miller Capital Structure Theory

Assumptions

1. Perfect capital market: Information is freely available, there is no asymmetry, transactions are costless; there are no bankruptcy costs, securities are infinitely divisible.
2. Rational Investors and Managers: Investors rationally choose a combination of risk and return that is most advantageous to them. Managers act in the interests of shareholders.
3. Homogeneous expectations: Investors hold identical expecations about future operating earnings.
4. Equivalent risk classes: Firms can be grouped into 'equivalent risk classes' on the basis of their business risk.
5. Absence of Taxes: There is no corporate income tax.

MM Proposition I
The value of a firm is equal to its expected operating income divided by the discount rate appropriate to its risk class. It is independent of its capital structure.

MM Proposition II
The expected return on equity is equal to the expected rate of return on assets, plus a premium. The premium is equal to the debt-equity ratio times the difference between the expected return on assets and the expected return on debt.

(Source: Prasanna Chandra, Financial Management: Theory and Practice, Fifth Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Co. Ltd, New Delhi, 2001. pp.417-24.)


Theory of Collisions (Physics)

Assumptions

The masses are moving on a frictionless surface.
The masses are perfectly elastic bodies (or they are connected by massless springs).

(Reference: H.C. Verma, Concepts of Physics Part 1, Bharati Bhawan, New Delhi, 1993 (Second reprint of revised edition 2007), p.145.


Article originally published at Knol 2657

List of Articles on the Topic


Volume 14, No. 1, Art. 25 – January 2013
Theory Building in Qualitative Research: Reconsidering the Problem of Induction

Pedro F. Bendassolli

Abstract: The problem of induction refers to the difficulties involved in the process of justifying experience-based scientific conclusions. More specifically, inductive reasoning assumes a leap from singular observational statements to general theoretical statements. It calls into question the role of empirical evidence in the theory-building process. In the philosophy of science, the validity of inductive reasoning has been severely questioned since at least the writings of David HUME. At the same time, induction has been lauded as one of the main pillars of qualitative research methods, and its identity as such has consolidated to the detriment of hypothetical-deductive methods. This article proposes reviving discussion on the problem of induction in qualitative research. It is argued that qualitative methods inherit many of the tensions intrinsic to inductive reasoning, such as those between the demands of empiricism and of formal scientific explanation, suggesting the need to reconsider the role of theory in qualitative research.
http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1851/3497

Full paper available


Updated   14 September 2016,  24 August 2016,  10 December 2012

StatSoft Statistics Textbook - Book Information


The book is available for free access since 1995. Now Statsoft is part of Dell.

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Discriminant analysis classifies the given subjects into two categories like "likely to be successful" and "likely to be failures" based on the data that is given for each subject. The decision maker can select the subjects likely to be successful for say, investment.

Factor analysis converts the given data on various subjects into less number of variables termed as factors. The factors can be used for further data analysis.




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Summer Undergraduate Research Program at Purdue University College of Engineering

Saturday, September 10, 2016

Moderating and Mediating Variables

Mediating variable acts as an intermediate variable between independent variable and the criterion variable (dependent variable). Unless the mediating variable is present, the effect between independent variable and criterion variable will be insignificant.

The correlation between the predictor and the mediator variables, and the correlation between the mediator and criterion variables should be significant. The correlation between predictor and criterion should be reduced (to zero in the case of total mediation) after controlling the relation between the mediator and criterion variables.


Moderating variable increases or decreases the effect of an independent variable on the criterion variable (dependent variable).

In analysis of variance (ANOVA), a basic moderator effect can be represented as an interaction between an independent variable and another variable.


http://psych.wisc.edu/henriques/mediator.html

More

https://significantlystatistical.wordpress.com/2014/12/12/confounders-mediators-moderators-and-covariates/ 

Types of variables in research propositions

http://www.indiana.edu/~educy520/sec5982/week_2/variable_types.pdf

Transcendental Phenomenology



Two approaches to phenomenology were highlighted by Cresswell in his book on Qualitiative Research Methodology (Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry): hermeneutic phenomenology (van Manen, 1990) and empirical, transcendental, or psychological phenomenology (Moustakas, 1994).


Transcendental phenomenology is based on principles identified by Husserl (1931) and was translated into a qualitative method by Moustakas (1994). 

All phenomenological approaches  seek to understand the life world or human experience as it is lived.  

Meaning is the core of transcendental phenomenology of science, a design for acquiring and collecting data that explicates the essences of human experience.



According to Van Manen,  phenomenology research is a dynamic interplay among six research activities. Researchers first turn to a human phenomenon, a concern, which seriously interests them (e.g., satisfaction, grief, motivation). They want to identify the essential themes involved in this phenomenon by listening to or reading about the lived experience of people who experienced the phenomenon. They write a description of the phenomenon, maintaining a strong relation to the topic of inquiry and balancing the parts of the writing to the whole. Phenomenology is not only a description, but it is also seen as an interpretive process in which the researcher makes an interpretation (i.e., the researcher “mediates” between different meanings) of the meaning of the lived experiences.

Moustakas’s (1994) transcendental or psychological phenomenology is focused less on the interpretations of the researcher and more on a description of the experiences of participants. In addition, Husserl’s concept of  epoche (or bracketing) is emphasized. The investigator has to set aside
his experience, as much as possible and has to take a fresh perspective toward the phenomenon under examination based on the description of the lived experience presented by the participant in the research project. The term “transcendental” means “in which everything is perceived freshly, as if for the first time.”  This state is seldom perfectly achieved but the researcher has to be aware of the need for bracketing and concentrate as much as possible on the participant's description.

Moustakas (1994), includes in the research process, identifying a phenomenon to study, bracketing out one’s experiences, and collecting data from several persons who have experienced the phenomenon. The researcher then analyzes the data to identify significant statements or quotes and combines the statements into themes. Then, the researcher provides a list of various experiences of the persons (what participants experienced), a structural description of their experiences (how they experienced it in terms of the conditions, situations, or context), and a description that explains the
overall essence of the experience.

Procedure for Conducting Transcendental Phenomenological Research


Moustakas’s (1994) approach

Moustakas (1994) has indicated the steps in phenomenological analysis using a  structured approach.
The major procedural steps in the process would be as follows:

• The researcher has to  determine if his research problem is best examined using transcendental  phenomenological approach.

The type of problem best suited for this form of research is one in which it is important to understand several individuals’ common or shared experiences of a phenomenon. The understanding of the common experiences will help in developing practices or policies to deal with the phenomenon, or it helps in developing a deeper understanding about the features of the phenomenon.

• A phenomenon of interest  is decided.

• To fully describe how participants view the phenomenon, researchers must bracket out, as much as possible, their own experiences.

• Data are collected from the individuals who have experienced the phenomenon. The data collection in phenomenological studies consists of indepth multiple interviews with participants. Polkinghorne
(1989) recommends that researchers interview from 5 to 25 individuals who have all experienced the phenomenon. Other forms of data, such as observations, journals, art, poetry, music, and other forms
of art related to the phenomenon are also collected. The interviews can be in the form of taped conversations, formally written responses,  and both can have accounts of vicarious experiences of drama, films, poetry, and novels.

• The data collection centres around two broad, general questions: What have you experienced in terms of the phenomenon? What contexts or situations have typically influenced or affected your experiences of the phenomenon? Other open-ended questions may also be asked based on the situation. But, the question on what and how focus attention on gathering data that will lead to a list of experiences (including their description) and a structural description of the experiences, and ultimately provide an understanding of the common experiences of the participants.

• Data analysis: Building on the data from the first and second research questions, data analysts go through the data (e.g., interview transcriptions) and highlight “significant statements,” sentences, or quotes that provide an understanding of how the participants experienced the phenomenon. Moustakas (1994) terms this step horizonalization. Next, the researcher develops clusters of meaning from these significant statements into themes.

• The themes are then used to write a description of what the participants experienced. Then the description of the context or setting that influenced how the participants experienced the phenomenon, called imaginative variation or structural description is developed from the cluster of data developed for the theme.

• From the structural descriptions, the researcher then writes a composite description that presents the “essence” of the phenomenon, called the essential, invariant structure (or essence). Primarily essence  is derived from the common experiences of the participants. It means that all experiences have an underlying structure for the phenomenon.






Illustrative Research Paper

Using Transcendental Phenomenology to Explore the “Ripple Effect” in a Leadership Mentoring Program
Tammy Moerer-Urdahl
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA
John W. Creswell
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA
http://wigan-ojs.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/IJQM/article/viewFile/4470/3594
http://nraomrp.blogspot.com/2013/07/using-transcendental-phenomenology-to.html


Phenomenological Research Methods
Clark Moustakas
SAGE, 27-Jul-1994 - Psychology - 192 pages
In this volume, Clark Moustakas clearly discusses the theoretical underpinnings of phenomenology, based on the work of Husserl and others, and takes the reader step-by-step through the process of conducting a phenomenological study. His concise guide provides numerous examples of successful phenomenological studies from a variety of fields including therapy, health care, victimology, psychology and gender studies. The book also includes form letters and other research tools to use in designing and conducting a study.
Google Book Link - No preview facility
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=QiXJSszx7-8C

Phenomenology: history, its methodological assumptions and application
Mohamed-Patel, Rahima
2002, MA thesis
https://ujdigispace.uj.ac.za/handle/10210/1594
(Many dissertations using phenomenology are in the above collection)


Husserl's books and articles on Archive.org

A methodology for modern phenomenology
http://enlightenedworldview.com/blog/?title=a-methodology-for-modern-phenomenology&more=1&c=1&tb=1&pb=1

Husserl's philosophy
http://www.angelfire.com/md2/timewarp/husserl.html

Lecture on phenomenology
http://www.sonoma.edu/users/d/daniels/phenomlect.html


Updated  13 September 2016,  27 August 2013

An Introduction to Logic - Cohen and Nagel - Book Information

Glaser and Strauss - Grounded Theory - Chapter 2 - Generating Theory - Quotations and Summary



From the data based on coding, categories (conceptual categories or concepts) have to identified. From the data only properties of categories are also identified. Then relations among categories are identified. The theory developed that can be expressed as a descriptive note or proposition. Glaser and Strauss prefer descriptive note. They say descriptive note provides an indication that theory needs to be further developed. A proposition indicates finality.   But they stated that from descriptive note, propositions can be created as necessary say for testing purpose.


Quotations

Comparative analysis is a general method, just as are the experimental and statistical methods. (All use the logic of comparison.)


A concept may be generated from one fact, which then becomes merely one of a universe of many possible diverse indicators for, and data on, the concept. These indicators are then sought for the comparative analysis.

In discovering theory, one generates conceptual categories or their properties from evidence; then the evidence from which the category emerged is used to illustrate the concept. The evidence may not necessarily be accurate beyond a doubt (nor is it even in studies concerned only with accuracy), but
the concept is undoubteclly a relevant theoretical abstraction about what is going on in the area studied. Furthermore, the concept itself will not change, while even the most accurate facts change. Concepts only have their meanings respecified at times because other theoretical and research purposes have evolved.

Our goal of generating theory also subsumes this establishing of empirical generalizations, for the generalizations not only help delimit a grounded theory's boundaries of applicability; more important, they help us broaden the theory so that it is more generally applicable and has greater explanatory and
predictive power. By comparing where the facts are similar or different, we can generate properties of categories that increase the categories' generality and explanatory power.

While verifYing is the researcher's principal and vital task for existing theories, we suggest that his main goal in developing new theories is their purposeful systematic generation from the data of social research.

A grounded theory can be used as a fuller test of a logico-deductive theory pertaining to the same area by comparison of both theories than an accurate description used to verify a few propositions would provide. ·whether or not there is a previous speculative theory, discovery gives us a theory
that "fits or works" in a substantive or formal area (though further testing, clarification, or reformulation is still necessary), since the theory has been derived from data, not deduced from
logical assumptions. . .

The sociologist with theoretical generation ·as his major aim need not know the concrete situation better than the people involved in it (an impossible task anyway). His job and his training are to do what these laymen cannot do-generate general categories and their properties for general and specific situations and problems. Thesevcan provide theoretical guides to the layman's action

Grounded theory can be presented either as a wellcodified set of propositions or in a running theoretical discussion, using conceptual categories and their properties.

If necessary for verillcational studies, parts of the theoretical discussion can at any point be rephrased
as a set of propositions. This repht:asing is simply a formal exercise, though, since the concepts are already related in the discussion. Also, with either a propositional or discussional grounded theory, the sociologist can then logically deduce further hypotheses. Indeed, deductions from grounded theory, as it develops, are the method by which the researcher directs his theoretical sampling

Our approach, allowing substantive concepts and hypotheses to emerge first, on their own, enables the analyst to ascertain which, if any, existing formal theory may help him generate his substantive theories. He can then be more faithful to his data, rather than forcing it to fit a theory. He can be
more objective and less theoretically biased. Of course, this also means that he cannot merely apply Parsonian or Mertonian categories at the start, but must wait to see whether they are linked to the emergent substantive theory concerning the issue in focus.

the elements of theory that are generated by comparative analysis are, first, conceptual categories and their conceptual properties; and second, hypotheses or generalized relations among the categories and their properties.

A category stands by itself as a conceptual element of the theory. A property, in turn, is a conceptual aspect or element of a category. We have, then, both categories and their properties.

It must be kept in mind that both categories and properties are concepts indicated by the data (and not the data itself); also that both vary in degree of conceptual abstraction. Once a category or property is conceived, a change in the evidence that indicated it will not necessarily alt~r, clarify or destroy it.
It takes much more evidence-usually from different substantive areas-as well as the creation of a better category to achieve such changes in the original category. In short, conceptual categories
and properties have a life apart from the evidence that gave rise to them.

Lower level categories emerge rather quickly during the early phases of data collection. Higher level,
overridLllg and integrating, conceptualizations-and the properties that elaborate them-tend to come later during the joint collection, coding and analysis of the data.

The comparison of differences and similarities among groups not only generates categories, but also rather speedily generates generalized relations among them. It must be emphasized that these hypotheses have at first the status of suggested, not tested, relations among categories and !heir properties, though they are verified as much as possible in the course of research.

Joint collection, coding, and analysis of data is the underlying operation. The generation of theory,
coupled with the notion of theory as process, requires that all three operations be done together as much as possible. They should blur and intertwine continually, from the beginning of an investigation to its end.


Summary of Glaser, Barney G & Strauss, Anselm L., 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research,
http://faculty.babson.edu/krollag/org_site/craft_articles/glaser_strauss.html

Friday, September 9, 2016

Research Methods in Education - Cohen, Manion, and Morrison - Book Information

Research Methods in Education

7th Edition

Louis Cohen, Lawrence Manion, Keith Morrison
Routledge, 2011 - Education - 758 pages

7th edition of the long-running bestseller Research Methods in Education encompasses the whole range of methods currently employed by educational research at all stages. It offers plentiful and rich practical advice, underpinned by clear theoretical foundations, research evidence and up-to-date references.

Chapters new to this edition cover:

Causation, critical educational research, evaluation and the politics of research, including material on cross-cultural research, mixed methods and participatory research

Choosing and planning a research project, including material on sampling, research questions, literature reviews and ethical issues

Meta-analysis, research syntheses and systematic reviews

Virtual worlds and internet research

Using and analysing visual media and data in educational research

Organizing and presenting qualitative data, content analysis, coding and computer analysis, themes, narratives, conversations and discourses, grounded theory

Understanding and choosing statistical tests, descriptive and inferential statistics, multi-dimensional measurement and factor analysis

Research Methods in Education is essential reading for both the professional researcher and students of education at postgraduate level and Phd level, who need to understand how to plan, conduct, analyse and use research.

The textbook is accompanied by a website: www.routledge.com/textbooks/cohen7e. PowerPoint slides for every chapter contain an outline of the chapter structure followed by a thorough summary of the key points, ideal for both lecturers and students. Within the book a variety of internet resources are referred to and these references have been included here, with links to the websites. A wide range of supplementary documents are available for many chapters, providing additional guidance and examples. They range from guidelines for the contents of a research proposal with a worked example, to screen-print manuals for using SPSS and QSR N6 NUD*IST (exportable to N-Vivo) plus data files.

Dictionary of the History of Science - Bynum, Browne and Porter - Book Information

Dictionary of the History of Science


William F. Bynum, E. Janet Browne, Roy Porter
Princeton University Press, 14-Jul-2014 - Science - 530 pages

For readers interested in the development of major scientific concepts and the role of science in the western world, here is the first conceptually organized historical dictionary of scientific thought. The purpose of the dictionary is to illuminate this history by providing a concise, single volume reference book of short historical accounts of the important themes, ideas, and discoveries of science. Its conceptual approach differentiates the dictionary from previous reference works such as books of scientific biography and makes it a convenient manual both for the general reader and for scientists interested in the origin of concepts in their own and other scientific fields.

Originally published in 1982.

https://books.google.co.in/books/p/princeton?id=Ian_AwAAQBAJ

Monday, September 5, 2016

The Research Process - Dan Remenyi - Chapter 7 - Summary

Ch.7.Research Process



Kinds of Evidence, Ways of Thinking

Qualitative and quantitative – and it is useful to consider two kinds of thinking which are referred to here as narrative and paradigmatic.  Qualitative evidence uses words to describe situations, individuals, or circumstances surrounding a phenomenon while quantitative evidence uses numbers usually in the form of counts or measurements to attempt to give precision to a set of observations.

Narrative thinking involves the construction of a consistent and convincing description of the process or subject matter under investigation.

Paradigmatic thinking involves the construction of laws, rules or conjectures from which it is hoped deductions can be made that can be tested against the evidence or observations.  The construction of a narrative will depend largely, but not exclusively, on the qualitative information that is available, while be construction of paradigms will generally depend on both qualitative and quantitative evidence.

Sometimes the researcher will find him or herself drawing on quantitative evidence for a narrative. In other words quantitative evidence is also incorporate in the narrative.


It is possible to regard narrative thought and paradigmatic thought as two poles of a continuum along which ideas are refined from descriptive generalisations to quite specific statements of relationships.

From Primary Narrative to Paradigm
The transition from narrative to paradigm can be described in five distinct steps,

Primary   Narrative - -> Higher order  narrative --> Theoretical conjecture  --> Hypotheses  -> Paradigm                                                                        



Narrative analysis
The most difficult part of the transition process from primary narrative to paradigm or scientific statement often lies in the first two steps leading to the theoretical conjecture.

From the narrative to the theoretical conjecture
Creativity in research lies primarily in the narrative mode of thinking which dominates the five steps and it is mostly here that new discoveries are made and new ideas are developed.

By reformulating narrative accounts of the world in terms of paradigmatic laws and theories, however, one is then able to do several important things.

First of all, the relatively loose narrative description is developed into a tighter paradigmatic framework that enables the consistency of the ideas expressed in the narrative to be more rigorously tested.  Secondly, by a process of measuring and quantifying observations made on the environment and suggested by the theory, it is possible to begin to make predictions that can then be tested (testing the theory).

Finally, the paradigms so developed may be used to make predictions about what will happen in other situations, making it possible to discover both the extent to which the paradigmatic theory is of general applicability and the areas in which it breaks down and requires further elaboration (Further testing as well as use of theory).


Definition of a Primary Narrative


A primary narrative may be defined as a detailed textual description of the phenomenon being studied, based either on the literature or on a combination of the literature and other evidence collected through a grounded theory approach.

Typically a primary narrative will be a lengthy document that tells the story of the phenomenon being researched in a comprehensive way.
It is from this story that the theory will ultimately be distilled.

Definition of a Higher Order Narrative


A high order narrative may be defined as a description which both captures the essential aspects of the information represented in the primary narrative but provides a more parsimonious conceptual framework in which the ideas, concepts relationships have been defined.  The high order narrative will form the basis of the theoretical conjecture that will eventually be presented, reduced to hypotheses or empirical generalisations, and rigorously tested.

Theoretical conjecture. 


The theoretical conjecture can simply be the formalisation of the conclusions of the higher order narrative in such a way that it will be relatively easy to produce empirical generalisations or hypotheses for the purposes of further testing.

 Paradigmatic Thinking


In paradigmatic thinking, the theoretical conjecture be developed into one or more hypotheses or empirical generalisations.  Once this has been done quantitative evidence needed is collected  and  the hypotheses is  be rigorously tested using appropriate statistical techniques

---------------------

More Details given in the Chapter


Introduction

In this chapter some of the basic issues involved in the early stages of constructing a research project are discussed, and in particular the relationship between the collection of evidence and the formulation of a theoretical framework or model within which to interpret the results of the study are examined.


From the narrative to the theoretical conjecture
Creativity in research lies primarily in the narrative mode of thinking which dominates the five steps and it is mostly here that new discoveries are made and new ideas are developed.

By reformulating narrative accounts of the world in terms of paradigmatic laws and theories, however, one is then able to do several important things.

First of all, the relatively loose narrative description is developed into a tighter paradigmatic framework that enables the consistency of the ideas expressed in the narrative to be more rigorously tested.  Secondly, by a process of measuring and quantifying observations made on the environment and suggested by the theory, it is possible to begin to make predictions that can then be tested (testing the theory).

Finally, the paradigms so developed may be used to make predictions about what will happen in other situations, making it possible to discover both the extent to which the paradigmatic theory is of general applicability and the areas in which it breaks down and requires further elaboration (Further testing as well as use of theory).

Of course this is a positivistic view which would not always be shared by a phenomenologist, who might not be interested in generalisation in this sense.


The Point of Departure
It is possible that a researcher might wish to investigate an entirely new aspect of a subject on which little has been published, perhaps based on ideas or thoughts that arise from the research worker’s own experiences in organisations.

In such cases various empirical techniques such as grounded theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967), or concept discovery (Martin and Turner,1986) can be used to establish the point of departure.

Whichever technique is used, the information generated in this way will form what is referred to as the primary narrative.

  This was done in a dissertation on Strategic Information Systems:  Current Practice and Guidelines(Remenyi,1990a)  where a grounded theory approach was applied to 55 interviews in order to develop a primary narrative.

Definition of a Primary Narrative
A primary narrative may be defined as a detailed textual description of the phenomenon being studied, based either on the literature or on a combination of the literature and other evidence collected through a grounded theory approach.

  Typically a primary narrative will be a lengthy document that tells the story of the phenomenon being researched in a comprehensive way.
It is from this story that the theory will ultimately be distilled.

In the dissertation mentioned above(Remenyi,1990a) the primary narrative was some 200 pages long.

   An example of this process is discussed later in this chapter.
Qualitative versus Quantitative Evidence
It is necessary to produce a primary narrative if a theoretical conjecture is to be competently developed.


The importance of the primary narrative and the theoretical conjecture

Figure 7.3 also shows how a positivistic approach to research leads to an analytical test of hypotheses or empirical generalisations, whereas a phenomenological approach may, or most probably will not lead to a formal test of the hypothesis.

A phenomenological approach will generally be judged by the extent to which it provides a convincing synthesis of the available information.

In the dissertation referred to above (Remenyi,1990a) both qualitative and quantitative evidence was collected and approximately equal effort was expended on the collection and analysis of qualitative evidence through structured interviews and quantitative evidence collected through the use of self-completion, postal questionnaires.

Evidence Collection
During the course of a research project a large amount of information may be collected and incorporated into the primary narrative.
The problem now is how to use this to construct a higher order narrative.

A high order narrative may be defined as a description which both captures the essential aspects of the information represented in the primary narrative but provides a more parsimonious conceptual framework in which the ideas, concepts relationships have been defined.  The high order narrative will form the basis of the theoretical conjecture that will eventually be presented, reduced to hypotheses or empirical generalisations, and rigorously tested.

Narrative Thinking
Unfortunately the importance of narrative thinking, the construction of a consistent story that describes the essential features of the problem under investigation, is frequently not recognized or at least not openly acknowledged  in academic research.

Language and the Free Invention of the Mind
Starting from observations made on the environment, how can the laws be discovered or inferred, from which by a process of education, observations can be explained?
Einstein (1954) states the problem quite explicitly: ‘I am convinced that… concepts which arise in our thought and in our linguistic expression are all, when viewed logically, the free creations of thoughts which cannot inductively be gained from sense experiences.

‘The justification (truth content) of the system rests in the proof of usefulness of the resulting theorems on the basis of the sense experiences, where the relations of the latter to the former can only be comprehended intuitively’.
The challenge to modern science, according to Einstein, is that there is no strict, well-defined inductive method that can lead to the formulation of laws and theories, i.e. the creation of knowledge, but rather that these are ’the  free invention of the human mind’ (Einstein,1936).  The issue then is how to go about inventing theories and discovering paradigms.

Mental Models
Einstein as quoted by Holton(1978) makes reference to different types of thinking when he describes the drive to understand the world:
Man seeks to form for himself in whatever manner is suitable for him, a simplified and lucid image of the world, and so to overcome the world of experience by striving  to replace it to some extent by this image.
This is what the painter does, and the poet, the speculative philosopher, the natural scientist, each in his own way.  Into this image and its formation, he places the centre of gravity of his emotional life, in order to attain the peace and serenity that he cannot find within the narrow confines of swirling personal experience.

Scientific discovery is akin to explanatory story telling, to myth making and to poetic imagination.

Moszkowski(1970) quotes Einstein as describing the process of scientific discovery:

In every true searcher of Nature there is a kind of religious reverence; for he finds it impossible to imagine that he is the first to have thought out the exceedingly delicate threads that connect his perceptions.  The aspect of knowledge which has not yet been laid bare gives the investigator a feeling akin to that experienced by a child who seeks to grasp the masterly way  in which elders manipulate things.

Imagination and Models
When one attempts to develop models of the world, these start as narrative descriptions within which the imagination is allowed to range freely and widely over many possibilities.  After many years he arrived at his now celebrated theory in which a combination of random variation and survival of the individuals best adapted to their environment leads to selection for particular traits and eventually the appearance of new species.
Darwin developed his theory entirely narratively without the use of any formal paradigms.  The strength then of narrative thinking is that it encourages the free play of the imagination.

The Researcher’s Natural Aptitude
It is interesting to note that some individuals have much greater skill at narrative thinking than others and it is perhaps this skill which attracts them to qualitative rather than to quantitative research.  Various quantitative techniques, such as content analysis (Berelson,1980) and correspondence analysis(Greenacre,1984), may be used to help develop a higher order narrative based on the primary narrative before this is in turn developed into theoretical conjectures.

The importance of the list in table 7.1 is that it suggests that there are 16 key concepts which arise out of the primary narrative which need to be incorporated in the higher order narrative and perhaps ultimately in the theoretical conjecture.

In the research referred to above, only the nine top-scoring concepts were eventually incorporated into the theoretical conjecture.  This is because it was felt that these were the most important issues that had been brought to the researcher’s attention, and also that more than nine issues might make the  theoretical conjecture unwieldy and difficult to understand.

Honing a Paradigm

According to the positivistic tradition, narrative thinking on its own does not generally yield sufficient rigour for what one now regards as modern science and it is usually necessary to progress beyond the purely narrative presentation.   Such as fitness, inheritability, rates of mutation and population growth rates.
It can now be said that if a certain trait in an individual has a certain inheritability and produces individuals with a certain degree of fitness relative to others, it will in a predictable period of time become the dominant trait in that population.

In other words, one can subject Darwin’s theory to much more stringent tests than were previously possible.  One can now do more than simply argue (as Darwin did) that the validity of his theory follows from its consistent explanation of a large class of facts, but can make precise and  testable predictions based on quantitative analysis of the theory.

It is equally true that many years elapsed between Einstein’s reflections in the patent office and the development of his field equations and eventually the general theory of relativity which explains the nature of gravity in terms of the curvature of space-time brought about by the presence of massive bodies.  However, in both cases, the narrative description can be seen as a necessary prelude to the formulation of the fully paradigmatic quantitative theory .

Medawar(1984) express this connection between the two modes of thought as follows:
Scientific theories…. begin as imaginative constructions.  They begin, if you like, as stories, and the purpose of the critical or rectifying episode in scientific reasoning is precisely to find out whether or not these stories about real life.

To synthesise the many thoughts into a few more powerful explanations.

To see what is general; in what is particular and what is permanent in what is transitory is the aim of scientific thought.

In the eye of science, the fall of an apple, the motion of a planet round a sun, and the clinging of the atmosphere to the earth are all seen as examples of the law of gravity.  This possibility of disentangling the most complex evanescent circumstances into various examples of permanent laws is the controlling idea of modern thought.

The next step in the research process is to use the higher order narrative to develop a theoretical conjecture.  If the narrative has been constructed with this in mind then the theoretical conjecture can simply be the formalisation of the conclusions of the higher order narrative in such a way that it will be relatively easy to produce empirical generalisations or hypotheses for the purposes of further testing.

At this stage a substantial amount of research has been done and it is clearly, the case that if this has been conducted well, a major contribution could have been added to the body of knowledge and, in some cases, may be sufficient for a research degree.

For this to happen paradigmatic thinking is needed which requires that the theoretical conjecture be developed into one or more hypotheses or empirical generalisations.  Once this has been done quantitative evidence is required that can allow the hypotheses to be rigorously tested using appropriate statistical techniques.

The Range of Evidence
Research workers who espouse the qualitative or narrative approach to research sometimes argue that a single case study is enough to enable the researcher to add to the body of knowledge.
This single case study approach has interesting implications.  Clearly the discovery of a phenomenon as a result of a single case study may add significantly to the body of knowledge simply because it is established that this phenomenon exists.   A broader exercise, including multiple case studies or evidence from a variety of sources, is more likely to lead to interesting generalisations about the phenomenon under investigation.

The steps involved in qualitative research
Quantitative Research and Paradigms
For quantitative research it is usually obvious what evidence is required and this evidence may usually be collected within a tight structure.  Thus in the social sciences in general and information systems research in particular, evidence collection often involves the use of questionnaire.  Information systems research especially information systems management research that relies exclusively on evidence obtained from techniques such as questionnaires, should be regarded with particular circumspection.

Scientific understanding proceeds by way of constructing and analysing ‘models’ of the segments or aspects of reality under study.  The purpose of these models is not to give a mirror image of reality, not to include all its elements in their exact sizes and proportions, but rather to single out and make available for intensive investigation those elements which are decisive.  We abstract from non-essentials, we blot out the unimportant to get an unobstructed view of the important, we magnify in order to improve the range and accuracy of our observation.
A model is, and must be, unrealistic in the sense in which the word is most commonly used.
Nevertheless, and in a sense paradoxically, if it is a good model it provides the key to understanding reality.

A Model of the Quantitative Research Process
It omits the development of the primary and the higher order narratives as these techniques are not necessary, given that the researcher will already have a model or paradigm with which to work.



References - Latest

ISSA Proceedings 2002 – Bourdieuian Criticism Of The Narrative Paradigm: The Case Of Historical Texts
by: Junya Morooka - University of Pittsburgh
http://rozenbergquarterly.com/issa-proceedings-2002-bourdieuian-criticism-of-the-narrative-paradigm-the-case-of-historical-textsi/

Barbara Czarniawska, Narrating the Organization: Dramas of Institutional Identity, University of Chicago Press, 1997
http://books.google.co.in/books/about/Narrating_the_Organization.html?id=oIHB7aJEipQC

The book referenced in the chapter  Jung C.G. Memories, Dreams, Reflections is available on archive.org


An article containing the process using primary narrative, higher order narrative and conjuncture development
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=S7CDl-cbPnUC&pg=PA94#v=onepage&q&f=false

Full thesis of the above paper by Marian Carcary
http://issuu.com/academic-conferences.org/docs/marian_carcary_june20

Full thesis having the primary narrative - higher order narrative - theoretical conjencture
A Model for the Formulation of Strategic Intent Based on a Comparison of the Business and the Military
by Colin George Brand
Supervisor: Dr. D. Remenyi
November 2010
University of South Africa
http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/4926/thesis%20brand%20cg.pdf?sequence=1

Full Thesis
ECommerce Information Systems Success: A South African Study
Shaun Pather
Supervisor: Prof D. Remenyi
November 2006
Cape Peninsula University of Technology
http://academic-publishing.org/pdfs/ECIS_Success_ShaunPather.pdf




Narrative method of enquiry
http://www.sonic.net/~rgiovan/essay.2.PDF


Theorizing or Coneptualizing Research in Economics
Chapter 7 http://home.sandiego.edu/~sumner/econ490/Lecture_7.pdf


Updated 8 September 2016, 23 December 2014