Thursday, May 4, 2017

Essays on Research Methodology - Dinesh Hegde - Book Information

Essays on Research Methodology

Dinesh S. Hegde
Springer, 03-Jun-2015 - Business & Economics - 234 pa

The book presents a collection of essays addressing a perceived need for persistent and logical thinking, critical reasoning, rigor and relevance on the part of researchers pursuing their doctorates. Accordingly, eminent experts have come together to consider these significant aspects of the research process, which result in different knowledge claims in different fields or subject areas. An attempt has been made to find a common denominator across diverse management disciplines, so that the broadest range of researchers can benefit from the book. The topics have been carefully chosen to cover problem formulation, contextualizing, soft & hard modeling, qualitative and quantitative analysis and ethical issues, in addition to the design of experiments and survey-based research.

The distinguishing feature of this book is that it recognizes the diverse backgrounds of scholars from different interdisciplinary areas as well as their varying needs with regard to modeling, observations, measurements, aggregation, data analyses, etc. After all, researchers are expected to deepen our understanding, expand on existing information, introduce fresh insights, present new evidence and/or disprove accepted theories, hypotheses etc. More importantly, the book cautions against the over-reliance on software packages and mechanical interpretation of results based on the size, sign and significance of the coefficients obtained. Instead, the focus is on the underlying theories, hypotheses and relationships and on establishing new ones. In doing so, due care is taken to clearly enunciate what exactly constitutes a knowledge claim and what is methodology as distinct from methods, tools and techniques.

Monday, December 12, 2016

Phenomenology - Blog Book - Table of Contents

Phenomenology - Blog Book - References


1. Brooks, D. (2008). The behavioral revolution. The New York Times, October 27, pp A. 31.
2. Coomer, D.L., & Hultgren, F.H. (1989). Considering alternatives: an invitation to dialog and question. In D.L. Commer & F.H. Hultgren (Eds), Alternative modes of inquiry. Washington DC: American Home Economics Association, Teacher Education Section.
3. Courtenay B.C., Merriam, S.B. & Reeves, P.M. (1998). The centrality of meaning-making in transformational learning: how HIV positive adults make sense of their lives, Adult Education Quarterly, 48 (2), pp. 65-84.
4. Denzin, N.A. & Lincoln, Y.S. (1994). Introduction: entering the field of interpretive research. In N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of interpretive research (pp. 1-17). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.
5. Derman, E. & Wilmott, P. (2009). Perfect models imperfect world. Businessweek, January 12, pp. 59-60.
6. Finance Maps of World. Electronic references to financial models. Retrieved December 3, 2008, from
7. Engle and Granger win Nobel Prize (2004). Biz Ed, January/February, pp. 8.
8. Enrich, L. (2005). Revisiting phenomenology: it’s potential for management research. In proceedings challenges or organizations in global markets. British Academy of Management Conference, pp. 1-13.
9. The financial crisis inquiry report (2011). The final report of the national commission on the causes of the financial and economic crisis in the United States. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
10. Gerardi, K., Lehnert, A., Sherlund, S.M. & Willen, P. (2008). Making sense of the subprime crisis. Prepared for the Brookings Panel on Economic Activity.
11. Giorgi, A. (1997). Theory, practice, and evaluation of the phenomenological method as a interpretive research procedure, Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 28 (2), pp. 235-260.
12. Hirshleifer, D. (2001). Investor psychology and asset pricing. The Journal of Finance, 56 (4).
13. Hirshleifer, D., Teoh, S.H. (2003). Herd behavior and cascading in capital markets: a review and synthesis, European Financial Management, 9 (1), pp.25-66.
14. Hultgren, F.H. (1989). Introduction to Interpretive Inquiry. In F.H. Hultgren & D.L. Coomer (Eds). Alternative modes of inquiry. Washington D.C., American Home Economics Association, Teacher Education Section, pp. 283-290.
15. Kane, E.J. (1989) Changing incentives facing financial-services regulators, Journal of Financial Services Research, 2, (3), pp. 265-274
16. Lewis, M. (2008). The End., December.
17. Lohr, S. (2008). In modeling risk, the human factor was left out, The New York Times, November 4, pp. B1.
18. McClelland, J. (1995). Sending children to kindergarten: a phenomenological study of mother’s experiences, Family Relations, 44 (2).
19. Phenomenological Research and its Potential for Understanding Financial Models, Michael S Wilson, USA
20. Polkinghorne, D. (1989). Methodology for the human sciences: systems of inquiry. Albany, NY: University of New York Press.
21. Randolf-Williams, E. (2010). The changing role of the compensation committee: five areas compensation committees should be addressing in 2010 and beyond, Benefits Law Journal, 23 (2), pp. 17-27.
22. Rajon, U., Seru, A. & Vig, V. (2008). The failure of models that predict failure: Distance, incentives and defaults.University of Chicago Graduate Business School Research Paper 08-19.
23. Roll, R., Ross, S.A. (1980). An empirical investigation of the arbitrage pricing theory, The Journal of Finance, 35 (5).
24. Thorton, M. (2001). Austrian economics: new applications, Austrian Economics Newsletter, 21 (2).
25. Tversky, A. & Kahnamen, D. (1982). Judgement under uncertainty. In Kahnamen, D., Slovic, P., & Tversky, A. (Eds) Judgment under uncertainty (2nded). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
26. Van Manen, M. (2001). Researching Lived Experience. Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy (2nd ed.). Alberta, Canada: Althouse Press.
27. Ehrich, Lisa (2005) Revisiting phenomenology: its potential for management research. In Proceedings Challenges or organisations in global markets, British Academy of Management Conference, pages pp. 1-13, Said Business School, Oxford University.

28. Sebastian Reiter, Glenn Stewart and Christian Bruce,  A Strategy for Delayed Research Method Selection: Deciding between Grounded Theory and Phenomenology, The Electronic journal of Business Research Methods, Vol-9, Issue-1, 2011,pp 35-46

Monday, October 10, 2016

Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods: A Guidebook and Resource - Book Information

Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods: A Guidebook and Resource

Steven J. Taylor, Robert Bogdan, Marjorie DeVault

John Wiley & Sons, 04-Sep-2015 - Psychology - 416 pages

An informative real-world guide to studying the "why" of human behavior

Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods is a practical, comprehensive guide to the collection and presentation of qualitative data. This book describes the entire research process — from design through writing — illustrated by examples of real, complete qualitative work that clearly demonstrates how methods are used in actual practice. This updated fourth edition includes  new case studies, with additional coverage of mixed methods, non-sociological settings, funding, and a sample interview guide. The studies profiled are accompanied by observation field notes, and the text includes additional readings for both students and instructors. This guide provides you a real-world practitioner's view of how qualitative research is handled every step of the way.

Many different disciplines rely on qualitative research as a method of inquiry, to gain an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the governing forces behind it.

Understand the strengths and limitations of qualitative data
Learn how experts work around common methodological issues
Compare actual field notes to the qualitative studies they generated
Examine the full range of qualitative methods throughout the research process

Whether you're doing research in sociology, psychology, marketing, or any number of other fields,  having human behavior as an important component, human behavior is the central concern of research. "What drives human behavior?" is the question That's what qualitative research helps to explain. Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods gives you the foundation you need to begin seeking answers.

Friday, October 7, 2016

Understanding Management Research: An Introduction to Epistemology - Phil Johnson, Joanne Duberley - Book Information

Understanding Management Research: An Introduction to Epistemology

Phil Johnson, Joanne Duberley
SAGE, 28-Sep-2000 - Business & Economics - 224 pages

'These sections represent the clearest rendition yet of these subjects, with difficult concepts introduced in a digestible form for the neophytic (or not so neophytic) researcher. Whilst in a book this size not every argument can be presented, there is ample extra material to be found to encourage further engagement... At the end of each chapter, there is a very useful Further Reading section provided by the authors, which gives useful guidelines.

Understanding Management Research provides an overview of the principal epistemological debates in social science and how these lead to and are expressed in different ways of conceiving and undertaking organizational research. For researchers and students who are increasingly expected to adopt a reflexive understanding of their own epistemological position, the authors present a concise, accessible guide to the different perspectives available and their implications for research output.

All students undertaking empirical research for theses and dissertations will find this book helps them comprehend the key ongoing debates and engage with their own pre-understandings when trying to make sense of management and organizations.

Sunday, September 11, 2016

Hermeneutic Phenomenology

As a branch or method of phenomenology, hermeneutic phenomenology is concerned with the life world or human experience as it is lived. The focus is toward illuminating details and seemingly trivial aspects within experience that may be taken for granted in our lives, with a goal of creating meaning and achieving a sense of understanding.  While Husserl focused on understanding beings or phenomena, Heidegger focused on ‘Dasein’, that is translated as ‘the mode of being human’ or ‘the situated meaning of a human in the world’. Husserl was interested in acts of attending, perceiving, recalling, and thinking about the world and human beings were understood primarily as knowers. Heidegger, in contrast, viewed humans as being primarily concerned creatures with an emphasis on their fate in an alien world.

Consciousness is not separate from the world, in Heidegger’s view, but is a formation of historically lived experience. He believed that understanding is a basic form of human existence in that understanding is not a way we know the world, but rather the way we are. Koch (1995) outlined Heidegger’s emphasis on the historicality of understanding as one’s background or situatedness in the world. Historicality, a person’s history or background, includes what a culture gives a person from birth and is handed down, presenting ways of understanding the world. Through this understanding, one determines what is ‘real’, yet Heidegger also believed that one’s background cannot be made completely explicit. Munhall (1989) described Heidegger as having a view of people and the world as indissolubly related in cultural, in social and in historical contexts.

Interpretation is seen as critical to this process of understanding. Claiming that to be human was to interpret, Heidegger (1927/1962) stressed that every encounter involves an interpretation influenced by an individual’s background or historicality. Polkinghorne (1983) described this interpretive process as concentrating on historical meanings of experience and their development and cumulative effects on individual and social levels.

This interpretive process is achieved through a hermeneutic circle which moves from the parts of experience, to the whole of experience and back and forth again and again to increase the depth of engagement with and the understanding of texts [interview transcripts] (Annells, 1996; Polkinghorne, 1983). Kvale (1996) viewed the end of this spiraling through a hermeneutic circle as occurring when one has reached a place of sensible meaning, free of inner contradictions, for the moment.

(Laverty explains the differences between Husserl's way of phenomenology and Heidegger's way phenomenology)

Hermeneutic Phenomenological  Research Method Simplified - 2011 article

Hermeneutic Phenomenological Research: A Practical Guide for Nurse Researchers
 By Marlene Zichi Cohen  

Hermeneutic Phenomenological study of Philanthropian Leaders
Lisa Barrow

Understanding and Leading Organization - A Hermeneutic Philosophical Investigation
Dominik Heil

Phenomenological Reduction and Emergent Design: Complementary Methods for Leadership Narrative Interpretation and Metanarrative Development
Donald L. Gilstrap
University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA
International Journal of Qualitative Methods 6 (1) March 2007

Authentic leadership and the narrative self
Raymond T. Sparrowe
The Leadership Quarterly 16 (2005) 419 – 439

Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy (Google eBook)
Max Van Manen
SUNY Press, 01-Jan-1990 - Education - 202 pages

Investigating subjectivity: Research on Lived Experience
Carolyn Ellis, 1992

Researching Entrepreneurship as Livid Experience

Read Transcendental Phenomenology  also

Updated  14 Sep 2016,  20 July 2013

Deductive Theory Building and Inductive Theory Building

Developing Theory from Observations - Creativity in Inductive Thinking - Research Methodology

Scientific Research is theory building.

Theory is developed for the set of observations. The process involved is inductive thinking. There is creativity involved in theory building. The concrete or specific observations are to be described by general concepts. Theory connects the concepts.

In developing the concept from a practical instance or observation some assumptions are employed and a rigorous description of the concept is developed. Further assumptions are used to develop theory. Model building is also theory development only. Model building used to solve practical problems also involves assumptions that bring the reality to close to the existing problem solving theories. From the set of assumptions, the theory is developed. This is termed as deductive approach to theory building.

In grounded theory method, Glaser and Strauss recommend theory building from the evidence only without building any model and then developing theory. They criticize model based theory building as too distant from the evidence on which it was supposed to be based. Hence, the likelihood of the theory failing in test is high.

Illustrations of Assumptions and Theory Building

Modigliani and Miller Capital Structure Theory


1. Perfect capital market: Information is freely available, there is no asymmetry, transactions are costless; there are no bankruptcy costs, securities are infinitely divisible.
2. Rational Investors and Managers: Investors rationally choose a combination of risk and return that is most advantageous to them. Managers act in the interests of shareholders.
3. Homogeneous expectations: Investors hold identical expecations about future operating earnings.
4. Equivalent risk classes: Firms can be grouped into 'equivalent risk classes' on the basis of their business risk.
5. Absence of Taxes: There is no corporate income tax.

MM Proposition I
The value of a firm is equal to its expected operating income divided by the discount rate appropriate to its risk class. It is independent of its capital structure.

MM Proposition II
The expected return on equity is equal to the expected rate of return on assets, plus a premium. The premium is equal to the debt-equity ratio times the difference between the expected return on assets and the expected return on debt.

(Source: Prasanna Chandra, Financial Management: Theory and Practice, Fifth Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Co. Ltd, New Delhi, 2001. pp.417-24.)

Theory of Collisions (Physics)


The masses are moving on a frictionless surface.
The masses are perfectly elastic bodies (or they are connected by massless springs).

(Reference: H.C. Verma, Concepts of Physics Part 1, Bharati Bhawan, New Delhi, 1993 (Second reprint of revised edition 2007), p.145.

Article originally published at Knol 2657

List of Articles on the Topic

Volume 14, No. 1, Art. 25 – January 2013
Theory Building in Qualitative Research: Reconsidering the Problem of Induction

Pedro F. Bendassolli

Abstract: The problem of induction refers to the difficulties involved in the process of justifying experience-based scientific conclusions. More specifically, inductive reasoning assumes a leap from singular observational statements to general theoretical statements. It calls into question the role of empirical evidence in the theory-building process. In the philosophy of science, the validity of inductive reasoning has been severely questioned since at least the writings of David HUME. At the same time, induction has been lauded as one of the main pillars of qualitative research methods, and its identity as such has consolidated to the detriment of hypothetical-deductive methods. This article proposes reviving discussion on the problem of induction in qualitative research. It is argued that qualitative methods inherit many of the tensions intrinsic to inductive reasoning, such as those between the demands of empiricism and of formal scientific explanation, suggesting the need to reconsider the role of theory in qualitative research.

Full paper available

Updated   14 September 2016,  24 August 2016,  10 December 2012