Monday, September 2, 2013

Barriers to Reading Empirical Literature

Doctoral Students’ Perceptions of Barriers to Reading Empirical Literature: A Mixed Analysis 

The perceived barriers toward reading empirical articles among 
graduate students: A mixed methods investigation
Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2009, pp. 70 – 86

Guidelines for Reading Empirical Articles



Quality of Research - An Explanation

Reliability, Validity, Generalizability and Credibility
Graham R. Gibbs





Grounded Theory Approach

Grounded theory is inductive approach to theory building


Glaser, Barney G & Strauss, Anselm L., 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research, Chicago, Aldine Publishing Company - Brief Summaries of the chapters

Glaser and Strauss - Grounded Theory - Chapter 2 - Generating Theory - Quotations and Summary

Papers on the Method

Guiding the Use of Grounded Theory in Doctoral Studies – An Example from the Australian Film Industry
International Journal of Doctoral Studies,  Volume 6, 2011

The place of the literature review in grounded theory research
Ciarán Dunne
International Journal of Social Research Methodology
Vol. 14, No. 2, March 2011, 111–124

Thomas, G. & James, D. (2006) ―Re-inventing grounded theory: some questions about theory, ground
and discovery‖ British Educational Research Journal, 32, 6, 767–795.

Papers and Dissertations Using Grounded Theory

Leadership under Severe Stress:
A Grounded Theory Study
Gerry Larsson, Ann Johansson, Tina Jansson, Gunilla Grönlund

Sunday, September 1, 2013

Research Strategies and Tactics - Dan Remenyi - Chapter Summary

Establishing  an overall strategy and detailed tactics for a research project is an important step in  the initiation of a masters.

 In the final analysis, the researcher’s creativity and imagination are of paramount importance and the research strategy and tactics are there to support rather than hinder the researcher’s creative faculties.

At a strategic level the research process is defined in broad terms that take into account the general philosophical approach adopted by the researcher.   This includes being aware of the ontological and epistemological assumptions that underpin each different research methodological strategy.

In deciding on a research strategy the masters and doctorate students should first decide if the research is to be essentially theoretical or empirical.  In the field of business and management studies at masters and doctoral level the vast majority of the research is traditionally empirical in nature and students should respect this precedent unless there is good reason for doing otherwise.

Theoretical research requires intensive textual investigation while empirical research in business and management studies requires extensive interaction with people.

Within the empirical approach to research there are two major options or research orientations : positivistic (which is an approach which is essentially derived from the natural sciences) and phenomenological (which is an approach which is essentially derived from the social sciences).  Once a strategy has been decided, consideration can be given to the specific research methods or tactics that will  be used. Decide on a research strategy, choose a research tactic.

Factors Influencing the Choice of Research Strategy

The research strategy is determined by four key issues, three of which are to do with resources and one is a direct function of the research question.   These key issues are :  Research question.,

Research Problem or Question

The first issue that the masters or PhD student needs to consider is the research problem or question.
Skills of the Researcher
Thus those educated in mathematics or natural and life sciences should be cautious if they decide to adopt a phenomenological strategy .  Phenomenology and positivism are so different that few individuals can bridge the two research cultures and those who attempt to so do need to be aware  of the potential  problems.

The Place for  Theoretical Research
Anyone undertaking a theoretical masters and especially a theoretical PhD will need to be extraordinarily competent.
Longitudinal Versus Cross-Sectional Research

Closely  allied to the research strategy issue is whether the research will be longitudinal  or cross –sectional
The term longitudinal is used to describe a study that extends over a substantial period of time and involves studying changes over time.

Cross –sectional research refers to studies which take a snapshot of a situation in time.  This type of research does not attempt to comment on trends or on how situations develop over a time period.  Rather cross-sectional research examines how something is done at the time of the research study and will generally seek to identify and understand differences between the various members of the study population.

A doctoral dissertation lasting three to five years might qualify for a longitudinal study.  Longitudinal research studies conducted over a period of several years can be used to monitor the progress of  interventions over time.  This paradigm is not extensively used in business and management research at universities for the reasons of time and costs noted above.

Different Tactics for Pursuing  Research

The techniques which will be used to collect evidence and which influence the way in which the evidence will be analysed is referred to here as the research tactic. There is an almost limitless number of research tactics and variations in business and management studies.

Galliers (1992) provides a list of approaches or tactics, a subset of which has been discussed in this chapter. This list may be considered as a set of well-known and accepted research tactics or tools that are available to the aspirant researcher.

Action Research
(More details)

Action research was developed during the 1960s and has proved particularly useful in the area of managing change.

The process of systematically collecting research data about an ongoing system relative to some objective, goal or need of that system; feeding these data back into the system; taking action by altering selected variables within the system based both on the data and on hypotheses; and evaluating the results of the actions by collecting more data.
As a process, action research is dependent upon an external view of a situation and it essentially involves:

Taking a static picture of the organisational situation;
Formulating a hypotheses based on the picture;
The manipulation of variables in control of the researcher;
Taking and evaluating a second static picture of the situation.

The action researcher is thus involved in a real manner in an organisational situation where there is not only an expectation that a ‘contribution to knowledge’ should be made, but also to directly produce usable knowledge that ‘can be applied and validated in action’.  In addition Gummesson points out that there is an expectation that the researcher should also develop a sensitivity to the theoretical categories which are being used so that they are transcended and transformed into better theory.

As Gummesson points out, the skill here is whether the researcher can successfully combine the role of almost a consultant and that of academic researcher. Action research usually involves a small-scale intervention on the part of the researcher in the phenomenon being studied.

Depending  on the circumstance, quantitative  or qualitative analytical techniques may be required to analyses the evidence being collected.

However, PhD level it needs to be implemented with considerable care and attention.
Action research is essentially phenomenological in nature.  It would clearly not be replicable.

A recent example of a dissertation based on action research involved a researcher who implemented a new activity based costing system in an organisation.   The focus the research was to understand how this new technique was being used to improve corporate financial performance.

Case Studies
(More details)

The case study is a sophisticated research tactic that will be discussed in detail in Chapter 10.   The case study is a research tactic for the social scientist as experiments are a research strategy for the natural scientist

Yin (1989) states that  a case study from a research strategy point of view may be defined as an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real life context, when the boundaries between phenomenon and the context are not clearly evident, and in which multiple sources of evidence are used.  It is particularly valuable in answering who, why and how questions in management research.

According to Bell (1993) the case study methodology has also been used as an umbrella term for a family of research methods having in common the decision to focus on an enquiry around a specific instance or event.  The philosophy behind the case study is that sometimes only by looking carefully at a practical, real-life instance can a full picture be obtained of the actual interaction of variables or events.

The case study allows the investigator to concentrate on specific instances in an attempt to identify detailed interactive processes which may be crucial, but which are transparent to the large-scale survey. Case studies are an important approach for business and management researchers and some masters and much doctoral research work is conducted using this method.

Because of its flexible nature a case study may be an almost entirely positivistic or almost entirely phenomenological study or anything between these two extremes.

A recent example of dissertation based on a case study approach involved the detailed examination of a large industrial conglomerate over a substantial period of time.  The focus of this case study was to understand the inter-relationships between the group corporate strategy and the individual strategies of the separate and somewhat independent subsidiaries in the group.

The main focus of the analytical work was on quantitative issues that employed the extensive use of  a statistical packages.

For another dissertation an intensive case study of a medium-sized specialist consulting practice was conducted .The objective here was to investigate the evolution of power  relationships in the orgnisation.

Practice which enabled some observation of interaction between consultants during the normal course of the working day. The company also allowed the researcher access to board and weekly planning meeting.  In addition, interviews were conducted with at least ten consultants and support staff.  The chairperson and managing director were also interviewed as they both consulted with clients.  The data collected was then analysed using the grounded theory method

(More details)

Ethnographic research requires the researcher to become part of the ‘tribe’ and to fully participate in its society.  ‘ethnography is that type of field observation in which a society’s culture  is studied . Ethnographic research is essentially phenomenological in nature.

A recent dissertation that used elements of ethnography was produced for a PhD where the student spent three years studying how the corporate culture changed as an organisation went on the acquisition trail.

This dissertation was not exclusively ethnographic and it would be quite unusual for a business and management research degree only to employ a pure ethnographic approach.

In a classical ethnographic situation a researcher would live with a tribe for five or more years and then return to his or her institution and write up the findings.  In business  and management studies, especially at the masters and even the doctoral level, this would usually not be feasible.

An ethnographer will be concerned with a detailed understanding of how the society being studied works, i.e. its culture, and thus when this approach is used in business and management studies it will focus on detailed aspects of corporate relationships.

Field Experiments
(More details)

Field experiments are more common and regarded as far more authentic than laboratory experiments in business and management research.   The famous Hardware studies that signalled the beginning of formal research studies in this field of endeavour, were field experiments that provided insight into issues concerning worker productivity.

However, a field experiment probably could be conducted around a change of policy or a new investment, and the student would simply have to obtain the agreement of the organisation to participate in this event as an observer.  Thus field experiments do have an important role in business and management research.

Field experiments are less positivistic as they clearly do not present the same opportunity for control and replication as the laboratory experiment.  Therefore field experiments are approached from a less traditional scientific point of view.  The results of a field experiment will often be interpreted in a much more phenomenological way.

Research in business and management studies is no longer largely, or even substantially, experimental in either the laboratory  or in a field study setting, but rather is based on the observation of actual business and management functions as they happen or as they have happened.

Experiments are frequently regarded as too artificial in the business and management world to be of any real applicability and thus many masters and PhD students tend to avoid them.

A recent example of dissertation based on a field experiment was a study as to how a group of sales people responded to a new incentive payment in one particular part of an organisation.  The researcher was able to to examine the sales group performance before the introduction of the new incentive scheme and was then able to observe the differences in performance after the change.

Using primarily quantitative techniques, this research confirmed that the new arrangements did in fact work and that they were suitable to be employed throughout the whole orgnisation.  This approach to research is usually straightforward, with the main problem for the researcher being the acquisition of access to organisations undertaking changes in the field.

Focus Groups
(More details)

This is a research approach for collecting evidence from a highly specialised group of individuals.  It is usually considered necessary to have a group of more than four individuals to constitute a focus group that will debate an issue of interest to the researcher.   This is a relatively easy way for a researcher to accumulate some evidence from a number of experts.

Again, the way in which this evidence is processed is similar to that described above under the heading of in-depth surveys and the positivistic and phenomenological implications are similar.

There would be no point in giving one example of the use of a focus group in masters and doctoral research.  Sometimes focus groups are used at the outset of the research to support the literature review in the formulation of a research question.  At other times the focus group is an approach to validating the research conclusions at the end of the project.

The  evidence collected during a focus group is usually analysed using qualitative techniques.  Focus groups are a useful way of obtaining evidence from experts in an intense or concentrated way.

(More details)

Forecasting research tends to be associated with mathematical and statistical techniques of regression and time series analysis.  This type of research may also be regarded as falling under the heading of mathematical simulation.  These techniques allow projections to be made on the basis of past or historic evidence.

This is usually a highly quantitative approach in which mathematical models are fitted to empirical data or evidence points.  This research attempts to establish relationships between different sets of historical evidence and to understand why these relationships exist.

The techniques used in forecasting are essentially positivistic in nature.  However , the results of forecasting research can be interpreted in a more phenomenological way and thus be integrated into a greater business and management paradigm than simply a mathematical view of the situation.

A recent  example of a dissertation based on forecasting research was work conducted to establish the viability of multiple regression analysis in supporting decisions to invest in plant and equipment in a large-scale processing industry.

This was a highly quantitative and mathematical piece of work which relied on a high degree of numerical sophistication as well as the ability to interpret the results in a way which was of value to management .  The result of this work showed that the forecasting approach being studied did in fact contribute to the organisation’s ability to forecast their need for more investment.

Futures Research
(More details)

Futures research also provides a way of considering and developing predictions.  However, unlike forecasting, futures research has a forward orientation and thus looks ahead, rather than backwards, using techniques such as scenario projections and Delphi studies.

The experts in a Delphi study are normally physically separated and are unknown to one another.  The purpose of a Delphi  study is to produce a relatively narrow spread of opinions.

This research tactic would not generally be sufficient on its own as the main focus for phD, but it could be used to support other tactics in an attempt to triangulate and thereby validate the conclusions.

A recent example of a masters dissertation that involved futures research was a study to establish what leading firms of chartered accountants thought were the main technological developments that would affect their practices or business over the next five years.

Game or Role Playing
(More details)

This research tactic or approach involves asking individuals to participate in a business or management game by playing out a specific role.
A recent example of a dissertation based on game or role playing considered how managers made different decisions when they were put in different competitive situations.

In-depth Surveys
(More details)

This type of survey generally attempts to obtain detailed in-depth evidence from a relatively small number of informants through a series of interviews.  In this case a questionnaire is generally not used, but rather the informant is allowed to speak freely on the subject of interest to the researcher.

At the end of an in-depth survey the researcher will have a series of transcripts and the task is then to analyse these and to produce appropriate findings.

The use of in-depth surveys is well illustrated by research conducted into how innovative companies manage to maintain an environment that supports new product development.

Twelve companies were identified and were asked to identify three innovative products.  The data was analysed through the use of quantitative methods where researchers compared quantifiable data across companies.  However, the primary focus of analysis was on the qualitative data in the form of stories.

Laboratory Experiments
(More details)

Borrowed from the physical and life sciences laboratory, experiments are sometimes used in business and management research.   However, they are not much used in practice, except in limited or specific circumstances, because many of the issues which are of most interest to business and management researchers cannot easily or convincingly be studied in laboratory settings.

Organisations and even individual managers will not usually collaborate in such experiments.  Sometimes students are used as surrogates for managers and executives in laboratory settings, but this is not often considered convincing.   Laboratory experiments are used far more frequently in the USA than in other parts of the world.

However, a recent example of a dissertation based on this approach was one in which the researcher used a group decision support system to examine how decision making differed depending upon a variety of different variables, including the number of decision makers participating in the meeting.

This experiment provided an insight into how different types of questions are best handled under different circumstances.  Laboratory experiments use quantitative techniques of evidence analysis to deliver answers to highly structures research questions.

Large –scale Surveys
(More details)

Surveys are a common approach to research in business and management.  Surveys, which for the purpose of this chapter are concerned with the administration of questionnaires, offer an opportunity to collect large quantities of data or evidence(oppenheim,1966) in a quick and convenient manner.  In business and management research, questionnaires are often used to collect evidence concerning management opinions.

Questionnaires allow evidence to be gathered concerning how much or how long or when, but are of less value when the researcher is asking about how or why.  Surveys are thus more often used as the sole or primary source of evidence at the masters level than at the PhD level.   However, some PhD dissertations might include a survey as an attempt to corroborate a theoretical conjecture.

The logic of a traditional survey is strictly positivistic.  The evidence is frequently treated as though it were the result of measurements of a machine used in an entirely physical or life science environment. Standard statistical techniques used for ordinal numbers are increasingly applied with no recognition of the problems of the subjectivity of the opinions.  Although surveys are still extensively used in business and  management research there is an increasing feeling that they are not suitable for the collection of evidence about management issues.

A recent example of a dissertation based on a large-scale survey was an exploration into the acceptance of an organisation’s computer strategy by its staff, by examining the level of user satisfaction with a management information systems based on end-user computing.

Some 1,500 computer users within the organisation were asked to complete a questionnaire, and approximately 300 completed forms were returned.  These were analysed using a number of statistical approaches.  As a result of the evidence  collected it was possible to suggest ways in which the organisation could improve the implementation of its strategy.

Participant –Observer Approach
(More details)

Using the participant-Observer tactic the researcher joins a team of individuals who are part of the phenomenon being studied.  The researcher takes part in the phenomenon in the same way as the other participants, but at the same time focuses on observing the way in which the group operates.  This research technique is essentially phenomenological in nature.

A recent example of the participant-observer approach involved research conducted into the management of design and manufacturing processes in small textile companies in central England.  The student conducted research in two companies and spent some time working as an employee in these organisations.

Access was negotiated with the owner –manager of the organisations and the researcher participated as a complete participant, or a normal member of the organisation, gathering information on how the design and the production process was managed by working alongside the mainly female workforce.

Scenario Research
(More details)

This research tactic involves collecting evidence from a group of suitably qualified experts who are asked to discuss the implications of a particular hypothetical situation occurring.   This evidence too is collected and processed in much the same way as in in-depth surveys and again the positivistic and phenomenological implications are similar.

A recent example of a dissertation using scenario discussions as part of an evidence collection strategy involved the presentation of  a number of views as to how the market for a product might change  over the next five years.  Each scenario was fully debated by a group of informants and the researcher collected their evidence.  This evidence was then analysed in the same way as it would be in the case of in-depth interviews or focus groups.

Simulation or stochastic Modelling
(More details)

In the context of this chapter, simulation or stochastic modelling may be defined as a domain of study in which the input variables and the manner in which they interact is generally known to an uncertain level of accuracy.  In such situations, when there is some question as to the accuracy, it is considered inappropriate to use single point estimates of the variables.

Stochastic modelling is used to investigate situations that do not readily lend themselves to a strictly deterministic or analytical treatment.  Sometimes simulation can be used as a substitute for a laboratory or field experiment.

Simulation is particularly relevant where there is a requirement for the evaluation of formal mathematical relationships under a large variety of assumptions.   There is not a high degree of utilisation of this research paradigm in business or management research except where mathematical modelling is key part of the study.   The techniques used for stochastic modelling are positivistic in nature but the results may be interpreted in a more phenomenological way.

A recent example of a dissertation based on simulation involved the building of a mathematical model which was used to describe how to optimise the logistics function of a large manufacturing firm.  This model included a large number of variables.  Some of these variables were quite difficult to estimate and as a result a stochastic rather than a deterministic approach was taken.

The model was eventually computerised and a large number of simulated trails were performed in order to obtain a better understanding of the impact of different values for the variables, and thus to understand better how to optimise the logistics function.  This was a highly mathematical dissertation requiring the researcher to have a strong quantitative background, as well as an ability to be able to present the findings to management in terms that were comprehensible to them.

Research Tactics and their Philosophical Bases

Table 3.1 summarises the general philosophical  bases underpinning the different research tactics.  It should be noted that most research tactics can be used, at least to some extent, as either positivistic or phenomenological devices.  However some tactics are much more studied to one type of research than another and appropriate comments are made in the table.

Regression Methods for Management Research

Advanced Regression Methods for Management Research

Required Texts:
1. T.A and Campbell, D.T. Quasi-experimentation: design and analysis issues for field settings
2.Wooldridge, J. Introductory econometrics: A modern approach
3. Survival Analysis using the SAS system, P.D. Allison, SAS Institute
1. Econometric Analysis, W. Greene
2. Basic Econometrics, D. Gujarati

Session I: So what’s wrong with cross sectional OLS?
• Unobserved heterogeneity & distributional assumptions
• Overview of non-normality, heteroscedasticity, correlated errors, collinearity problems.
Chapter 2 Cook, T.A and Campbell, D.T. Quasi-experimentation: design and analysis issues
for field settings

McWilliams, Abigail and Donald, Siegel, (2000), “Corporate responsibility and financial
performance: correlation or misspecification”? Strategic Management Journal, 21(5): 603-609

Session II: Experimental Design: The Gold Standard (May 9)
• The power of randomised assignment and standardized treatments

Chapter 3, 4 & 8, Cook, T.A and Campbell, D.T. Quasi-experimentation: design and analysis
issues for field settings.

Haunschild PR, Davis-Blake A, Fichman M. 1994. Managerial overcommitment in corporate
acquisition processes. Organization Science 5(4): 528-540.

Session III: Interactions effects in OLS
• Moderating & mediating effects; Estimation and interpretation
Chapters 1-3 from Aiken, L. S. and West, S.G. Multiple Regression: Testing and interpreting
Baron, R and Kenny, D (1986) The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182

Tsai, W. (2001) Knowledge transfer in intra-organizational networks: Effects of network position and absorptive capacity on business unit innovation and performance, Academy of Management Journal; Oct 2001

Session IV: Limited dependent variable models
• Introduction to ML estimation
• Logit, probit, tobit, poisson and negative binomial regressions

Chapter 17 from Wooldridge
Gulati, R., and H. Singh (1998) “The architecture of cooperation: Managing coordination costs and appropriation concerns in strategic alliances.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 43: 781-794.
Ahuja, G. and Katila R. (2001) Technological acquisitions and the innovation performance of
acquiring firms: a longitudinal study , Strategic Management Journal, 2: 197-220

Session VI: Censored observations (June 6th)
• Censoring
• Parametric and non-parametric models for censored data
• Cox regressions
Chapter 2, 5 and 9 from Survival Analysis using the SAS system, P.D. Allison , SAS Institute

Morita, J.G., Lee, T.W. and Mowday, R.T. (1993) The regression analog to survival analysis :
a selected application to turnover research, Academy of Management Journal, 36(6) 1430-
Amburgey, T.L., Dawn K. and Barnett, W. (1993) Re-setting the clock: The dynamics of
organizational change and failure, Administrative Science Quarterly, 38 (1): 51-73

Session VII: Adjusting for selection biases
• Instrumental variables and 2-stage least squares.
• Heckman’s correction
Readings:Chapters 15 and 17 from Wooldridge
Berk, R.A. (1983) An introduction to sample selection bias in sociological data, American
Sociological Review, 48: 386-398
Poppo L and Zenger, T (1998) Testing alternative theories of the firm: transaction cost,
knowledge based and measurement explanations for make or buy decisions in information
services, Strategic management Journal, 19 (9): 853-877
Shaver, J.M. (1998) Accounting for endogeneity when assessing strategy performance: does
entry mode affect FDI survival? Management Science, 44(4): 571-585

Session VIII Panel data with continuous dependent variables

• Fixed effects and Random effects
• Specification tests
Chapters 13 and 14 from Wooldridge
Bowen, Harry P. and Margarethe F. Wiersema, 1999 “Matching method to paradigm in strategy research: limitations of cross-sectional analysis and some methodological alternatives”, Strategic Management Journal, 20: 625-636
Anand BN and Khanna T (2000) “ Do Firms learn to create value? The case of alliances” Strategic Management Journal , 21: 295-315

Session IX: Panel data with Limited dependent variables
• Conditional fixed effects
• Population averaged models

Chapter 8 of Logistic Regression using the SAS system, by P.D. Allison, SAS Institute

Henderson R and Cockburn I (1994) “Measuring competence? Exploring firm effects
in pharmaceutical research”, Strategic Management Journal Winter Special Issue, 15,  pp 63-84

Posted on 13 January 2013

Interviews - In-depth Surveys - Use in Business and Management Research

Sandy Q. Qu, John Dumay, (2011) "The qualitative research interview", Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, Vol. 8 Iss: 3, pp.238 - 264
Purpose – Despite the growing pressure to encourage new ways of thinking about research methodology, only recently have interview methodologists begun to realize that “we cannot lift the results of interviewing out of the contexts in which they were gathered and claim them as objective data with no strings attached”. The purpose of this paper is to provide additional insight based on a critical reflection of the interview as a research method drawing upon Alvesson's discussion from the neopositivist, romanticist and localist interview perspectives. Specifically, the authors focus on critical reflections of three broad categories of a continuum of interview methods: structured, semi-structured and unstructured interviews.


Laboratory Experiments - Research Tactic in Business and Management

Deck, C. & Smith, V. (2013). Using Laboratory Experiments in Logistics and Supply Chain Research. Journal of Business Logistics, 34 (1), 6-14

Journal of Supply Chain Management
Volume 47, Issue 3, pages 17–18, July 2011

Laboratory Experiments in Operations Management

Experiments in IS research

Participant –Observer Approach as Research Method in Business and Management

Research Methods – a Case Example of Participant Observation
Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods Volume 7 Issue 1 2009 (39 - 46)
Based on a doctoral dissertation
Journal available online

Participant Observation as a Tool for Understanding the Field of Safety and Security

Participant Observation: A Model for Organizational Investigation?
Gerald Vinten, Whitbread Professor of Business Policy at the University of Luton, Luton, UK

Qualitative Research and Publication in Academy of Management Journal
2004 paper

Scenario Research - Research Tool in Business and Management Research

Kalle Piirainen, Samuli Kortelainen, Kalle Elfvengren, Markku Tuominen, (2010) "A scenario approach for assessing new business concepts", Management Research Review, Vol. 33 Iss: 6, pp.635 - 655

How to improve scenario analysis as a strategic management tool?
Theo J.B.M. Postmaa, Franz Lieblb,
Technological Forecasting & Social Change 72 (2005) 161–173

Scenario Approaches – History, Differences, Advantages and Disadvantages

Scenario Management: An Interdisciplinary Approach
Requirements Engineering Journal, 1999

By Jerome C. Glenn and The Futures Group International
AC/UNU Millennium Project Futures Research Methodology – V2.0

Philosophy of Management

Elements of a Philosophy of Management and Organization
You can download chapter 2 from this site

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Management
Paul Griseri
April 2013   176 pages   SAGE Publications Ltd
Download link for chapter 1
Google Book Link with Preview Facility

Perspective: Management Philosophy Enigma
William D. Litzinger and Thomas E. Schaefer
The Academy of Management Journal
Vol. 9, No. 4 (Dec., 1966), pp. 337-343

A philosophy of management
Ralph Davis
The Journal of Insurance, Vol.25. No.3, Nov. 1958, Pp. 1-7

The Philosophy of Management
Oliver Sheldon

Simulation - Research Tool in Business and Management Research

Academy of Management Review 2007, Vol. 32, No. 4, 1229–1245

Simulation modeling provides a powerful methodology for advancing theory and research on complex behaviors and systems, yet it has been embraced more slowly in management than in some associated social science disciplines. We suspect that part of the reason is that simulation methods are not well understood. We therefore aim to promote understanding of simulation methodology and to develop an appreciation of its potential contributions to management theory by describing the nature of simulations, its attractions, and its special problems, as well as some uses of computational modeling in management research.

Empirical simulation studies in operations management: context, trends, and research opportunities
Scott M. Shafer, Timothy L. Smunt
Journal of Operations Management 22 (2004) 345–354

Simulation as a Research Tool in Management Studies
PETER BERENDS, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
GEORGES ROMME, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
European Management Journal Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 576–583, 1999

Saturday, August 31, 2013

Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods

Vol. 11, Issue 1, June 2013

Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods
Vol 10, Issue 1, 2012

Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods
Vol 9, Issue 2

Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods
Vol 1, Issue 1

Field Methods for Academic Research: Interviews, Focus Groups and Questionnaires 2nd Edition - Dan Remenyi - 2012 - Book Information

Field Methods for Academic Research: Interviews, Focus Groups and Questionnaires 2nd Edition

D. Remeny

Academic Conferences Limited, 2012 - Business - 191 pages

Google Book Link

European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies - Proceedings - Book Information

Tenth European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies

Ninth European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies

Eighth European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies
A case example of participant observation - page 178

Seventh European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies

Sixth European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies

Fourth European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies

Third European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies
When is doctoral dissertation ready for submission - Page 291

Game or Role Play in Business and Management Research

Using Role Play Simulation to Study Entrepreneurship from a Process Perspective: Theoretical Grounding and First Empirical Perspective

Focus Group Research in Business and Management

Tracey Coule, (2013) "Theories of knowledge and focus groups in organization and management research", Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, Vol. 8 Iss: 2, pp.148 - 162


Journal of Contemporary Management, Volume 6 2009 Pages 229 - 240

Ereiba, Y.H., Glass, J., and Thorpe, T.
Khosrowshahi, F (Ed.), 20th Annual ARCOM Conference, 1-3 September 2004, Heriot
Watt University. Association of Researchers in Construction Management, Vol. 2, 857-65.

‘Breaking Down the Barriers: Using Focus Groups to Research Small 
and Medium Sized Enterprises’ 

International Small Business Journal, Vol. 19, No.1, pp 44-67, 2000.

Case Study Research in Business and Management - Bibliography

Case Study Research Presentation by D. Remenyi

Case Study Research - Book by D. Remenyi
Academic Conferences Limited, 2012 - Case method - 153 pages
This book highlights where the challenges are and what needs to be done to become a competent case study researcher. Although the case study research method is increasingly important and used by many researchers it is still not well understood. This book explains the main issues which have to be considered before case study research is undertaken as well as providing check lists as to how to go about using this research approach. Case study research is not an easy option and this book points out where the challenges are and what needs to be done to become a competent case study researcher. Issues which are given particular attention include different types of case study, the issue of how many cases are required, research proposals and research protocols when using case studies, the collection and analysis of data. It also addresses the analysis of case study data, the case study write up and how to evaluate a case study.
Google Book Link - with Preview facility

The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research
Florian Kohlbacher
Volume 7, No. 1, Art. 21 – January 2006

Management Research Methodology - K. N. Krishnaswamy et. al - 2006 - Book Information

Management Research Methodology: Integration of Methods and Techniques
K. N. Krishnaswamy, Appa Iyer Sivakumar, M. Mathirajan
Pearson Education India, 2009 - Business & Economics - 600 pages

Google Book Link

Good content in the book

Field Experiments Research in Business and Management

Leading to Make a Difference: A Field Experiment on the Performance Effects of Transformational Leadership, Perceived Social Impact and Public Service Motivation
Nicola Bellé, Bocconi University
Paper presented at the 11th Public Management Research Conference, Madison, Wisconsin, June 20-22 2013.,%20Perceived%20Social%20Impact%20and%20Public%20Service%20Motivation.pdf

The Role of Management in Productivity - Field Experiment in India
Paper by N. Bloom, 2013

Determinants of Mobile Advertising Effectiveness: A Field Experiment
Yakov Bart ; Andrew T. Stephen and Miklos Sarvary
2012 INSEAD discussion paper

On boundaries between field experiment, action research and design research
2012 paper

Field Experiments with Firms
2011 Paper, IZA, Germany

Ethnography Research in Business and Management

Colin Dey, (2002) "Methodological issues: The use of critical ethnography as an active research methodology", Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, Vol. 15 Iss: 1, pp.106 - 121

2002 paper

Digital ethnography: The next wave in understanding the consumer experience
Design Management Journal, 2003

Peter Lugosi, PhD
School of Services Management, Bournemouth University

Ethnographic Research Methods in Business and Information Systems Research
Ann Brown and Jessica Iacono
Page 79
Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Research Methods
28-29, June 2012

Gartner: Call for Participation - Ethnography within enterprise, 2013

Course page:

Tuesday, August 27, 2013

Lack of Internal Validity - A Complex Example

Positive Affect and the Complex Dynamics of Human Flourishing by Barbara L. Fredrickson and Marcial F. Losada is a popular article published in 2005.

But see this critique on the above paper

The Complex Dynamics of Wishful Thinking: The Critical Positivity Ratio.
Brown, Nicholas J. L.; Sokal, Alan D.; Friedman, Harris L.
American Psychologist, Jul 15 , 2013, No Pagination Specified. doi: 10.1037/a0032850

We examine critically the claims made by Fredrickson and Losada (2005) concerning the construct known as the “positivity ratio.” We find no theoretical or empirical justification for the use of differential equations drawn from fluid dynamics, a subfield of physics, to describe changes in human emotions over time; furthermore, we demonstrate that the purported application of these equations contains numerous fundamental conceptual and mathematical errors. The lack of relevance of these equations and their incorrect application lead us to conclude that Fredrickson and Losada's claim to have demonstrated the existence of a critical minimum positivity ratio of 2.9013 is entirely unfounded. More generally, we urge future researchers to exercise caution in the use of advanced mathematical tools, such as nonlinear dynamics, and in particular to verify that the elementary conditions for their valid application have been met.

According to the criticism, the research paper by Frederickson and Losada does not have internal validity.

Saturday, August 24, 2013

Knowledge Nodes and Creativity

Baba Shiv, Priofessor of Management Science, Stanford Graduate School of Business

If you want to be innovative, you've got to come out of your silo.

It's important to be in regular dialogue with people who are not in your industry and to read in areas that are unrelated to your work. Picking up books on history, science and other large and small topics can get different areas of your brain going.  This kind of information building allows you to develop  "knowledge nodes" - synergistic conglomerations of data that can be unexpectedly combined to create great solutions. This is how Steve Jobs operated - his wide ranging interests allowed for a creative lifetime of connecting the dots.

Why CEOs need to be creative

A Nodes Model for Creativity in Mathematics Education

Sunday, July 21, 2013

Qualitative Research in Education: A User's Guide - Book Information

Qualitative Research in Education: A User's Guide
Marilyn Lichtman
SAGE Publications, 20-Jan-2012 - Education - 368 pages

Qualitative Research in Education: A User’s Guide, Third Edition continues to bring together the essential elements of qualitative research, including traditions and influences in the field and practical, step-by-step coverage of each stage of the research process. Synthesizing the best thinking on conducting qualitative research in education, Marilyn Lichtman uses a conversational writing style that draws readers into the excitement of the research process.

p. 168 has content on coding, categories and concepts

Steps Details
Step 1 Initial coding. Going from the responses to some central idea of the responses.
Step 2 Revising initial coding.
Step 3 Developing an initial list of categories or central ideas.
Step 4 Modifying your initial list based on additional rereading.
Step 5 Revisiting your categories and subcategories.
Step 6 Moving from categories into concepts (themes).

Thursday, July 18, 2013

Phenomenology: Use in Management and Business Research

Article with focus on Phenomenology in Management and Business Research

Ehrich, Lisa (2005) "Revisiting phenomenology: its potential for management
In Proceedings Challenges or organisations in global markets, British
Academy of Management Conference, pages pp. 1-13, Said Business School, Oxford

Sanders, P. (1982). Phenomenology: A new way of viewing organizational research.
The Academy of Management Review, 7, 353-360.

The Case for Qualitative Research
The Academy of Management Review,  Vol. 5, No. 4, Oct., 1980

Research Studies Using Phenomenology in Management Area

Crosetto, G.J. (2004). The experience of team emotion: A phenomenological study,
Doctor of Education dissertation (The George Washington University, 2004).
Dissertations Abstracts International, 65/03.

Ehrich, L.C. (1997). Principals and professional development: a phenomenological
study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology,
Gibson, S.K. & Hanes, L.A. (2003). The contribution of phenomenology to HRD
research. Human Resource Development Review, 2, 181-205.
Moreno, V. Jr (2001). The rupture and restructuring of professional self-identity: A
Phenomenological study of BPR experiences (Doctoral dissertation, University of
Michigan, 2001). Dissertations Abstracts International, 62/06.

The Meaning of Social Reality: Positivism vs. Phenomenology in Social Sciences
A Master thesis examining use of positivism and phenomenology in social sciences
(There are more dissertations on phenomenology in the above website)

Title: Phenomenology as a method for exploring management practice
 Author: Paschal Anosike; Lisa Catherine Ehrich; Pervaiz Ahmed
Journal: Int. J. of Management Practice, 2012 Vol.5, No.3, pp.205 - 224
 Abstract: Phenomenology is a term that has been described as a philosophy, a research paradigm, a methodology and equated with qualitative research. In this paper first we clarify phenomenology by tracing its movement both as a philosophy and as a research method. Next we make a case for the use of phenomenology in empirical investigations of management phenomena. The paper discusses a selection of central concepts pertaining to phenomenology as a scientific research method, which include description, phenomenological reduction and free imaginative variation. In particular, the paper elucidates the efficacy of Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological research praxis as a qualitative research method and how its utility can be applied in creating a deeper and richer understanding of management practice.

Husserl's Phenomenological Method in Management
Robert Shaw

Management and Transcendental Phenomenology: Strange Bedfellows?
By Patrick Bradbery.
International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp.221-230. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 602.639KB).

Doing Research Projects in Marketing, Management and Consumer Research
Christopher E. Hackley
This book mainly focuses on interpretive or qualitative research approaches for academic research
Routledge, 2003 - Business & Economics - 210 pages
Google Book Link with preview facility

7th European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies: Ecrm 2008
Academic Conferences Limited, 2008 - Business - 314 pages

  OK - 3122

Friday, July 12, 2013

Management Thesis Using Phenomenology or Qualitative Research Methods

Developing an EDC performance evaluation toolkit for affiliated and non-affiliated hoteliers


Thursday, July 11, 2013

Project Portfolio Management - Theory

Project Portfolio Management: Tools and Techniques
Parviz F. Rad, Ginger Levin, 01-Jan-2006 - Business & Economics - 144 pages
Does your organization want to achieve success in prioritizing projects systematically, deliberately, and logically? Project Portfolio Management Tools and Techniques is written to demonstrate how to elevate your organization's project management thinking to the level beyond managing individual projects in a standalone fashion. This book is for those executives and other project professional who strive to have a formalized system of authorizing the right projects and abandoning the wrong projects, who desire to spend resources in the most efficient manner, and who want to have an actionable strategic plan for improving organizational project management sophistication. Project Portfolio Management Tools and Techniques deals with the full spectrum of project portfolio management (PPM) functions, from selecting projects through formalized portfolio management processes to facilitating the successful execution of projects through creating a formalized, project-friendly environment. This book will aid you in the implement of a PPM system, assist in gaining the necessary commitment from executive management, and provide guidelines for the modification of operational practices. Get ahead of the game by seeing a comprehensive project portfolio model that can help you establish yours successfully!

A literature review is included in the book
Google Book Link with Preview facility

Phenomenology: An Introduction




A research strategy provides the overall direction of the research. Deciding between theoretical or empirical research is an important decision in research strategy. Theoretical research requires intensive textual investigation while empirical research requires primary data collection and use of secondary data. Theoretical research is more intellectually demanding and the risk of failure is greater than empirical work.

In empirical research, there are two research orientations: positivistic and phenomenological.

Phenomenology has origins in social sciences, especially in Psychology, where it has developed into a recognized branch of the discipline.

Phenomenology – Definitions

Cohen and Manion (1987): ’Phenomenology is a theoretical point of view that advocates the study of direct experience taken at face value; and one which sees behaviour as determined by the phenomena of experience rather than by external, objective and physically described reality.’

Rudestein and Newton (1992):  “Phenomenology attempts to describe and elucidate the meanings of human experience.”

Camus (O’ Brien,1965): “Phenomenology declines to explain the world, it wants to be merely a description of actual experience.” 

Boland (1985): “Phenomenology is a term that carries a great deal of ambiguity along with its sometimes confused and faddish use.”

Phenomenology – Explanation

The central premise is that the researcher should be concerned to understand phenomena in depth and that this understanding should result from attempting to find tentative answers to questions such as ‘What?’  ‘Why?’ and ‘How?’

Phenomenology contends that such understanding is essential and will not come from answering the questions ‘How many?’ or ‘How much?’

Phenomenology assumes that knowledge can be gained by concentrating on phenomena experienced by people.

At the heart of the phenomenology is the relationship between self and society, as expressed in the work of Mead (1934), the originator of phenomenological psychology.

Clegg and Dunkerley (1980) took the position that in research involving people, the variables being manipulated could not be treated as independent of the ‘meaning which individuals assigned to them. This is one of the fundamental assumptions of phenomenological researchers. People have the ability to think, argue, and experience the world of events in idiosyncratic ways. The positivistic research strategy cannot deliver an understanding of these human dimensions.

Resources on the web

Phenomenology as Research Method, by Beverley Campbell,
Victoria University of Technology

Ehrich, Lisa (2005) "Revisiting phenomenology: its potential for management
In Proceedings Challenges or organisations in global markets, British
Academy of Management Conference, pages pp. 1-13, Said Business School, Oxford

Hawley, Georgina, A phenomenological study of the health-care related spiritual needs of multicultural Western Australians, Ph d thesis, 2002

Unwin, Bren Carolyn, Phenomenology and Landscape Experience: A Critical Appraisal For Contemporary Art Practice

My Thesis Prospectus

Durie, Robin, Phenomenology and Deconstruction

Marlow, Susan Anne, A Voyage of Grief and Beauty: a Phenomenological Study of the Experience of Supporting a Family Member with an Intellectual Disability Who is Dying in a Community Setting

Phenomenology as an Educational Research Method--van Manen

Interpretation in Phenomenology

Phenomenology, Interpretation, and Community (Google eBook)
Leonore Langsdorf, Stephen H. Watson, E. Marya Bower

SUNY Press, 1996 - Philosophy - 295 pages
Google Book Link with preview facility

Phenomenological Interpretation of Kant's Critique of Reason
by Martin Heidegger
Google book link

The Role and Influence of Interpretation in Hermeneuticphenomenological Research
Currents: New Scholarship in the Human Services, 2008

  OK - 34

Sunday, July 7, 2013

Case Study Research - Theses, Dissertations and Papers

Tommi Lehtonen
Helsinki University of Technology
BIT Research Centre
Innovation Management Institute
Multiple case studies were used in this dissertation. It is a theory building research by a masters students in IE&M course.

Saturday, July 6, 2013

Modern and Post Modern Portfolio Theories

Post-modern portfolio theory supports diversification in an investment portfolio to measure investment's
Rasiah, Devinaga (2012) : Post-modern portfolio theory supports
diversification in an investment portfolio to measure investment's performance, Journal of
Finance and Investment Analysis, ISSN 2241-0996, International Scientific Press, Vol. 1, Iss. 1,
pp. 69-91

Portfolio Selection in the Presence of Multiple Criteria
Ralph E. Steuer, Yue Qi, Markus Hirschberger
Published in: Handbook of Financial Engineering, Springer
Science, New York, (2008), pp. 3-24

Four Moment Portfolio Theory and Tests

Mean-Variance-Skewness-Kurtosis Portfolio
Optimization with Return and Liquidity
Xiaoxin W. Beardsley, Brian Field and Mingqing Xiao
Communications in Mathematical Finance, vol. 1, no.1, 2012, 13-49
ISSN: 2241 – 1968 (print), 2241 – 195X (online)
Scienpress Ltd, 2012

Gülder KEMALBAY,  C. Murat ÖZKUT and Ceki FRANKO
Ekonometri ve İstatistik Sayı:13 (12. Uluslararası Ekonometri, Yöneylem
Araştırması, İstatistik Sempozyumu Özel Sayısı) 2011 41–61
(Search Google for online document)

Multi-Factor Capital Asset Pricing Models - Theory and Tests

An Empirical and Theoretical Analysis of Capital Asset Pricing Model
Mohammad Sharifzadeh
Universal-Publishers, 18-Nov-2010
Google book with preview link
The problem addressed in this dissertation research was the inability of the single-factor capital asset pricing model (CAPM) to identify relevant risk factors that investors consider in forming their return expectations for investing in individual stocks. Identifying the appropriate risk factors is important for investment decision making and is pertinent to the formation of stocks' prices in the stock market. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine theoretical and empirical validity of the CAPM and to develop and test a multifactor model to address and resolve the empirical shortcomings of the single-factor CAPM. To verify the empirical validity of the standard CAPM and of the multifactor model, five hypotheses were developed and tested against historical monthly data for U.S. public companies. Testing the CAPM hypothesis revealed that the explanatory power of the overall stock market rate of return in explaining individual stock's expected rates of return is very weak, suggesting the existence of other risk factors. Testing of the other hypotheses verified that the implied volatility of the overall market as a systematic risk factor and the companies' size and financial leverage as nonsystematic risk factors are important in determining stock's expected returns and investors should consider these factors in their investment decisions.

How to price hedge funds
From two to four moment CAPM

Cognitive Dissonance Theory and Tests

Cognitive Dissonance: 50 Years of a Classic Theory (Google eBook)
Joel Cooper
SAGE, 27-Mar-2007 - Psychology - 216 pages
In marking the 50th anniversary of the theory's inception, Joel Cooper - arguably the scholar most associated with dissonance research in the past few decades - has presented a beautiful, modern and comprehensive analysis of the state of dissonance theory. This book charts the progress of dissonance theory, assessing its impact not only within our understanding of psychology but in everyday experiences as well. It should be important reading for students in social psychology, either undergraduate or graduate, but equally relevant to a host of other readers who need to understand or share the same passions for appreciating the significance of cognitive dissonance in the human psyche.
Google Book link with preview facility

Perspectives on Cognitive Dissonance (Google eBook)
R. A. Wicklund, J. W. Brehm
Psychology Press, 15-Apr-2013 - Psychology - 348 pages
Published in 1976, Perspectives on Cognitive Dissonance is a valuable contribution to the field of Social Psychology.
Google Book link with preview facility

The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance and Experimental Research
Oshikawa, Sadaomi
November 1968
SOURCEJournal of Marketing Research (JMR);Nov68, Vol. 5 Issue 4, p429

Johns Hopkins University
Psychological Bulletin, VOL. 61, No. 1 JANUARY 1964, Pp. 1-22
This article reviews critically the experimental evidence in support of
cognitive dissonance theory as applied to complex social events. The
criticisms which can be made of this literature fall into 2 main classes.
1st, the experimental manipulations are usually so complex and the
crucial variables so confounded that no valid conclusions can be drawn
from the data. 2nd, a number of fundamental methodological inadequacies in the analysis of results—as, e.g., rejection of cases and faulty
statistical analysis of the data—vitiate the findings. As a result, one
can only say that the evidence adduced for cognitive dissonance theory
is inconclusive. Suggestions are offered for the methodological improvement of studies in this area. The review concludes with the thesis that
the most attractive feature of cognitive dissonance theory, its simplicity,
is in actual fact a self-defeating limitation.

Friday, July 5, 2013

Share Holder Value - Dumbest Idea

No popular idea ever has a single origin. But the idea that the sole purpose of a firm is to make money for its shareholders got going in a major way with an article by Milton Friedman in the New York Times on September 13, 1970.

“In a free-enterprise, private-property sys­tem,” the article states flatly at the outset as an obvious truth requiring no justification or proof, “a corporate executive is an employee of the owners of the business,” namely the shareholders.

The executive is an employee of the corporation.

What’s interesting is that while the article jettisons one legal reality—the corporation—as a mere legal fiction, it rests its entire argument on another legal reality—the law of agency—as the foundation for the conclusions.

The article thus picks and chooses which parts of legal reality are mere “legal fictions” to be ignored and which parts are “rock-solid foundations” for public policy. The choice depends on the predetermined conclusion that is sought to be proved.

Steve Denning’s most recent book is: The Leader’s Guide to Radical Management (Jossey-Bass, 2010).

Follow Steve Denning on Twitter @stevedenning

Sunday, June 30, 2013

Research Methodology - Videos

Research Methodology - Conceptual Foundation



More videos from Ignousoss

Content Analysis



Presentation by Dr. Catherine Corrigall-Brown, Jan 23, 2013 at The University of Western Ontario: "A Practical Introduction to Content Analysis." The presentation outlined what content analysis is, discussing how contents are coded, and illustrated types of analyses that can be done with the technique. Dr. Corrigall-Brown also presented a few examples of studies done with content analysis. Slides for this presentation are online at the RDC website.

Knol - 4798